Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 21:22:59 GMT -6
MUD HOUSE DESIGN 2014 COMPETITION
(Reinventing the African Mud Hut Together)
The 1st prize winning design is Sankofa House by the design team: M.A.M.O.T.H from France; the 2nd prize winner is Eban Aya by Atelier Koe in Senegal; and the 3rd prize is awarded to Ejisu Earth House by Jason Orbe-Smith in USA. ALL SUBMITTED DESIGN ENTRIESAs follows is a list of all designs submitted for the Mud House Design 2014. 1st Prize 2nd Prize 3rd Prize The competition was designed to: (1) to generate mud house design alternatives to be available free to everyone to appreciate, use, or improve them to generate more practical and contemporary design solutions for the region; and (2) to make possible the construction of the best design entries through building workshops to realize prototypes, as examples to the local people that mud architecture can be durable and beautiful.The jury involved a preselection jury and grand jury by use of judging criteria involving functionality, aesthetics and technical matters. Twenty top finalists were chosen by the Preselection Jury of architects, professors and administrators with relevant expertise, which were forwarded to the Grand Jury of architecture professors and others who are established in earth architecture. From the Top 20 Design Entries, three prize-winning designs were selected. Prizes for first, second and third place consist of a commemorative plaque and a choice of cash reward or construction of winning design in Ghana. Every design team of the Top 20 Design Entries receives a certificate of recognition. The Top 20 Designs from the Preselection Jury are entry #: 317059165, 327522751, 327786905, 328048061, 314507851, 328435285, 324391035, 328228111, 326440275, 623-184-7726, 310451283, 327977887, 327552257, 316677083, 327369961, 327055175, 320260825, 328091593, 325724077 and 321999921.What is next?
PROTOTYPING WORKSHOPS IN GHANA TO BUILD SOME OF THE BEST DESIGN ENTRIES.
See the discussion page: nkaprojects.boards.net/thread/31/prototyping-usability-testing
If interested, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 21:33:55 GMT -6
ENTRY # 316677083
Design Team: Biek Nijst and Gilad Sitton (the Netherlands) Design Statement:
Fascinated by the African society and how much we are alien to its habits and lifestyle we decided to dedicate a layers concept to our project. it means that some hidden layers of social paradigms we couldn’t meddle with, such as the social structure in the house. That left us to deal with what we can do: Design the visible layers. While the layout of the house remain in the traditional way,
· we approached the outer part of the house, the detail, the roof, the underground.
· our approach is a family house which can host 4-5 of the family and 1-3 guests.
· the house can maintain itself under water supply disorder with 4000 lt water container.
· the house is naturally ventilated
· the kitchen can be fully open to the street and by that function as a small food business.
· the grid of the house is flexible and capable to enlarge or decline various spaces depending the needs and design wishes;
· the storage/shop can be open to the street and function as a shop
· the roof is designed as a sound absorbing element
· the roof harvest water and channel it towards dedicated piping or (future) rainwater system
· The Roof should provide ample shadow to minimize heath entering the house via sunshine.
· Het gebouw wordt opgebouwd uit stenen gemaakt van ter plaatse gewonnen aarde en zand gemengd met cement.
· Due to the climate the optimal orientation of a house is facing south where the living quarters are situated in the middle, the sleeping quarters at the east, and the kitchen at the west.
· The owner of the building carries out the majority of the work establish the building. This reduces construction costs with a more comfortable house as a result. Cement is used instead of more sustainable products to simplify the construction process.
· We have chosen to apply bamboo to some parts of the exterior and the interior. An important part of the building has to be made of earth. We have chosen CEB bricks as the main component of our constructive walls. These are inexpensive to fabricate and by the addition of cement, the CEB brick has broadly the same characteristics to the more common concrete blocks and baked bricks. In addition, a wall made of bricks is much easier and faster to make than a wall made of rammed earth. The bricks are made by mixing water, sand, and cement and earth and then compacting the bricks with a specially purchased hand press to de desired shape. De bricks ar then laid to dry in the sun.
· The specific mass of a CEB brick is about 2000kg /m3.
· By building as light as possible, we minimize the heat accumulation in the walls. This is done by using perforated bricks. By using these perforated bricks, we can further enhance the climate inside the house and lower the internal temperature, thus creating a more comfortable inner climate.
· We have chosen to use the typical Adinkra symbols as perforations, which, as we understand, are incorporated into or at walls and other architectural features in the Kumasi region.
· The budget of the house does not exceed $ 6.000,- as requested ($ 5.900).
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 21:42:44 GMT -6
ENTRY # 327786905
Design Team: Shaen Tevyan (Russia)
The main idea of the project is to create a home that will be characteristic of this material. Make this house out of laterite as if it was a sculpture. Construction of this unit not needs a complicated technique, it needs to be built by human hands. The house provides a heating system, rainwater collection and ventilation system with heat recovery.
This single-family house has kitchen, living room, room for parents, children room. Also it has a bathroom with shower. From the living room there is an exit to the backyard. In the central part of the house has a fireplace.
This is a Laterite-house with the addition of cement-sand mortar. The roof is covered with epoxy coating. Insect nets installed into the windows instead of glass.
The main costs of about 50% contain structural elements of the building including a hearth, rainwater harvesting system, windows and doors. 30% of the budget will cost the foundation and heating system. 20% will come from local materials and work.
So, building this house will be cost about 5600 USD, excluding the yard.
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 21:52:50 GMT -6
ENTRY # 328228111
Design Team: Baijul B. Shah, Harsh Rathod and Utkarsh Gor (Mumbai, India)
The main intention of the design is to keep the users closer to their roots while also considering their needs in today’s modern world. The lifestyle in the olden days was influenced greatly by the houses they lived in and the activities which the houses allowed them or debarred them from. Thus, the design mainly focuses on keeping the features of these houses like courtyards and openness intact, but in a modern way where users also need privacy and tranquil areas along with outdoor socializing spaces.
Majority of the materials used in the construction of the house are available naturally and locally, and were widely used in the conventional construction methods.
The entrance into the plot by means of a courtyard, adorned by a blossoming tree at the core amidst the paving encircled by landscape, endows a notable welcoming foyer to the house. The living room unwraps itself into the landscape area and courtyard from two sides, and flows deeper into other functional areas from the other side. Unlike the conventional straight wall methodology, the walls of the rooms break the linearity by widening up towards the courtyards and open spaces, allowing larger openings for better ventilation.
All the rooms have foldable shutters which allow the users to discharge into a courtyard or the landscaped area which can be used as common areas for informal gatherings or private restful spaces. The roof finished with treated corrugated bamboo mat, supported by bamboos resting on the earthen walls, formulates a shelter made of easily obtainable and natural materials. The roof overhangs of 1 m from most of the sides of the rooms, prevents the walls from direct sunlight and rains, thus protecting from the extremity of the climate in all the seasons. An orderly gap between the roof and the walls allows free circulation of wind and helps illuminate the room with diffused natural light.
Material and Technique Details
Foundation and Plinth – Concrete Foundation topped with earth, and the floor plastered with a mixture of earth, water and cement.
Wall Systems - Stabilized Rammed Earth Walls - A slipping type formwork is to be designed. The panels are lifted up and the walls are built like piers walls. The process is similar to the modern rammed earth system, but adapted to the local context of the country. Some sand can always be added according to the soil quality to reduce shrinkage. Cement percentage will vary with the soil quality.
Roofing system - Bamboo Mat corrugated roofing
· Bamboos are split into thin slivers, which are woven into mats
· Mats are soaked in adhesive resin and are allowed to drain and dry
· Mats are glued together under high temperature and pressure.
· Sheets are trimmed to shape.
This sheet of corrugated bamboo mat is supported by bamboos resting on the walls.
Openable Partitions - Sliding Folding partitions
Thin slivers of Bamboo are closely placed horizontally and are attached to the timber framed panels, running on grooved tracks in the floor.
Foundation - $1600
Walling - $1400
Roofing - $1800
Fittings - $600
Miscellaneous - $200
Total - $5600
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 22:04:16 GMT -6
Design Team: Sophie Mahiou and Clémence Mallet (Marseille, France)
The Heart Earth was born with the establishing of strong architectural principles. The location of the house is set back from the road and from an edge of the plot. As the house is set back, it allows to set up an air system area and the second allows you to figure out on a possible extension on the free lateral space. The house has grown by creating internal outdoor spaces. These areas are included within the walls of the house and enjoy his privacy. A large space was divided; a larger patio is appropriated for the activities of the day and a smaller patio is connected to the rooms. Create intimacy open to respond to climate Ashanti characteristics. Imagine a relationship between the house, its environment, the sky and nature. These spaces are designed in a long-term, if the parcel is divided, people always benefit from these internal outdoor spaces.
The separate rooms are seen in two types of activities: day activities for cooking, living room, storage and night activities for rooms. Each time, water rooms are associated. All these rooms are directed towards the internal space and an outer opening above. These openings help to reinforce the idea that the house is organized around the patios.
Moreover, work on continuity was conducted. You can go through the house all the rooms without going through the outside. Conversely, it is possible to enter all the rooms of the house by the patios.
H The construction
The rammed earth is the construction technique used, the thickness required corresponds to the idea of enclosure and allows to work in the thickness. Several phases are explained:
- Foundations are strip footings 100 cm deep, cast reinforced concrete
- The base of 60 cm is local stone
- Bearing walls are rammed earth (mud) of 50 cm thick
- The roof is a simple wooden frame, with purlins, rafters, lintels. It is isolated thanks to the dried grass and covered in mud
- The soil is clay, the earthen floor method by plastering the floor with a mixture of earth, water and cément
The budget is 5981 $ and classified as:
a) foundation := bag of cément x30 + sand + small aggregate + bundle of wire mesh x3
20 x 10,5 + 60 + 100 + 3 x 60 = 550 $
b) bedrocks = rocks = 150 $
c) walls in rammed earth = earth + bag of cement + sand + wooden formwork (400 linear foot) 10 x 10,5 + 60 + 400 x 3 = 1365 $
d) walls in earth bricks = hand pressed bricks x 500 500 x 0,2 = 100 $
e) roof = framing lumber (1400 linear foot)+ straw + mud 1400 x 1 + 100 = 1500 $
f) fittings = shower + wc x2 + washing basin x2 + washroom fittings x3 70 + 65 x 2 + 32 x 3 + 50 x 3 = 446 $
g) miscellaneous = plywood doors x15 + wooden door frame x15 + 2 pair of 8 blade louvers frame + plywood blade louvers x 4
15 x 10 + 15 x 8 + 2 x 8 + 4 x 15 = 370 $
h) labor = local skilled laborer x 5 x 30 days = 150 x 10 = 1500 $
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 22:19:10 GMT -6
ENTRY # 320260825
Design Team: Claire Lebedel (Saint Germain-en-laye, France)
Canopy has several definitions. It is synonym of a cocoon, a protective envelop. It is an ornemental cloth above a bed, a high overarching, a roofed structure serving as a shelter, a protective rooflike covering mounted on a frame over a walkway or a door. Another poetic and significant definition from the dictionary is that canopy is the highest level of branches and foliage in a forest, formed by the crowns of the trees. Canopy seemed appropriate to describe the bamboo structure carrying the vegetalized roof and protecting the mud house from damp and rainfall.
Compressed mud brick (made with a manual machine) has been chosen for it solidity, its thermal properties, its easy implementation and its esthetic qualities. However, it must be protected from damp and rainfall which is why foundations are not made of mud in this design.
Concrete continuous foundations (following the bearing walls of the mud house) have been chosen as well as ponctual foundations for the bamboo structure. One layer of bamboo framework is situated at the base of the continuous foundations and replaces traditional iron rods used in concrete. Another bamboo framework has been placed at the top of the foundations under the earth mixed with concrete slab. It has been proved that bamboo framework is as efficient as iron rods in concrete foundations and slab and big cement enterprises such as Lafarge are starting to use this local, economic and sustainable solution.
INBAR (International Network for Bamboo and Rattan) at Kumasi has confirmed that bamboo is a local and abundant material in the Ashanti region and can be used in frameworks and structures, the bamboo school in Kumasi is an example. It is an alternative construction that has the same ideological aims as mud construction this is why it should be combined because they can be economically, sustainably complementary as well as energetically and structurally (thermal properties of mud that bamboo does not have, structural properties of bamboo that mud does not have as well as its resistance to damp and rain when well treated, preserved and harvested at their mature age). INBAR at Kumasi can contract people to harvest good quality bamboo knowing that 5 meters of a bamboo culm of 12 cm of diameter is approximately 0.50 US$ and that a diameter of 20cm for the same length is of about 1.50 US$ in the Ashanti region.
An economic solution to use less cement was to use iron rods for the bamboo columns instead of planting the bamboos in the foundations (consequently increasing the dimensions of the ponctual foundations thus the amount of cement. Details in the presentation boards).
A mix of earth and cement for the high ground floor slab. Economic and sustainable solution as well.
The natural ventilation of the house is made possible with the two roofs : one first earth reel roof related to the compressed mud bricks has openings in every rooms of the house. It creates a "chimney effect" and the hot air goes out while creating a natural ventilation with the windows and doors of the house. Earth reel roof protects also from the hot temperature of outside. The second roof, independent from the mud house, is made of corrugated sheets on which a wood tray is fixed. The soil is put in this wood tray, the corrugated sheets are protected from the damp soil by a polyane film.
The bamboo beams and columns are attached together with threaded steel rods. As an economic solution cotton rope, known for its strength and resistance to time and damp has been chosen to alternate with the rods and also reinforces the rods resistance.
General estimation : (labor and transportation are included in those global prices)
Foundations and ground slab : 1200 $
Mud house (compressed mudbricks walls, earth reel roof, mud wall fence plot) 1200 $
Bamboo structure, bamboo brise-soleil and shutter, corrugated sheets, vegetalized roof : 2100 $
Windows and doors : 150 $
Plumbery and electricity : 1110 $
Finitions (tiles etc...) : 200 $
TOTAL = 5960 $
Post by Nka on Sept 1, 2014 22:28:54 GMT -6
ENTRY # 314158453
Design Team: Laura van Santen, Diederik de Koning and Gara Beukman (The Netherlands)
Title: EXTENDED LIVING
Subtitle: “A Proposal for Affordable Housing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana”
1. LIVING AND USE
The design for this house accommodates an uncertain budget and an evolving family structure by applying a modular system, which can shrink and expand, customised to the needs of its owner. The modules are ten by ten feet. They are paired to form a bedroom, a study, a kitchen, a shop, or a bathroom. All structures are built on a foundation and elevated on a floor plinth, creating courtyards in between where family life takes place. A sequence of frames supports a roof, which can consequently be filled in with walls to define rooms. Central to the courtyard are the kitchen and bathroom that can, in due time, be shared with extended family on the plot of sixty by sixty feet.
The modules align in one direction to enable maximum ventilation in Ghana's humid climate. By designing openings in the masonry, each mud brick facade answers to the specific needs of its user: the kitchen requires maximum ventilation; the bathroom needs additional privacy; the living rooms are opened toward the inside of the courtyard, but more closed towards the outside road. The bedrooms have an additional brick vaulted ceiling for more thermal comfort. This cavity between the roof and vault improves airflow, while the corrugated roof protects the hand pressed bricks from weathering.
2. STRUCTURE AND BUILD-UP
The stabilized rammed earth foundation is made of a mixture of sieved excavated site soil with 25% sand and 10% cement. A trench of 1,5 by 1,5 feet is dug out and the mixture is rammed in by a team of four builders. For all floors, the earth is mixed with plaster and rammed, after which it is sanded and polished with linseed oil to create a durable finish. The top of the rammed earth floor is one foot above ground level as protection against water.
The timber frames are placed ten feet apart and connected to bitumen impregnated footings in the foundation. Local carpenters can assemble them on site out of 2 by 6 inch timber with bolted or pegged joints. Wooden panels and doors are used instead of mud to allow for entrances to the bedrooms and living rooms. Purlins are placed on the frames, on which corrugated zinc roof sheeting 10 by 2 feet is connected for rigidity and to protect the masonry. Masonry walls of various types can be placed between the frames, built of hand pressed bricks 8 by 4 by 2 inch in flemish bond with incremental openings. The nubian vaults in the bedrooms are supported by additional buttresses.
3. BUDGET AND PHASING
The design allows for expansion when new family members arrive or more budget allowances are available. In its most basic form, the house consists of two bedrooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a courtyard. The initial budget for this starting point could be around $6500 ($1000 for foundation and floor, $1500 for timber framing, $2500 for brick masonry facades and vaults, $1000 for corrugated roofing and $500 for doors, plumbing, fences, and nets).
The model allows for an extensive variety of constellations that accommodates the changing needs of its owners. Initial improvements to the most basic model could be made by adding vaults and wooden louvres for cooling comfort, as well as hanging textiles for the personalisation of spaces and creating a vegetable garden for self-sustenance. In a second phase, foundations, walls and roofing can be added to create an extra wing with additional bedrooms and living rooms. These offer privacy for the extended family. The central gathering space between the bathroom and kitchen can be covered to create a veranda. Finally, the corners of the plot facing the street could be used for shops or office spaces.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 9:01:23 GMT -6
ENTRY # 324469219
John Paul Senyonyi and Comfort Mosha (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)
For this project the district of interest is Kwabre. With its growing medium income family population the need for housing is present as with most areas in the Ashanti region. The proposed housing project will be located in the residential area of Ntonso along the Ejura-Kumasi Road. This area is known for a significant land height above sea level and rocky hills having stable conditions for building construction and uniformly high temperatures and rainfall. Key interest has been taken in incorporating cultural aspects illustrated in the lush fabrics, as well as a flexible design that is adaptable to social, technological changes and available materials. The design centres around a modular unit, with public and private spaces connected with an intermediate passageway. With an emphasis on a compact building, careful positions of openings and principals of design such as the cross cooling have been implemented. The modular design approach allows for the extension of the units to fit in the context of the region and the landscape. The building provides outdoor spaces that cater for an indoor and outdoor lifestyle that is a vibrant way of life for the community.
The flexible design, illustrated in module I, II and III can be adapted to growth even with increasingly limited resources. Due to spatial constraints, reducing the number of walls results in a light design with ease of movement. In addition, a unit that can be expanded to fit the growing family needs and social changes is reflected the space layout. The unit is accessed through a main entrance leading into the living room and kitchen. With two bedrooms and a shared ‘easy latrine’ toilet and shower. The kitchen and lounge are both connected to the outside allowing for an indoor & outdoor lifestyle that is a key feature in the community. The building comprises concrete strip foundations, rammed earth exterior and interior walls and a concrete ring beam provided to hold the timber roof structure with corrugated iron sheets. These construction techniques have the advantage of locally available labour at relatively low costs. Rammed earth is renowned for its thermal abilities especially in residential units and its impeccably low carbon footprint. The access doors to the building would be constructed of timber with a ‘Kente’ woven fabric infill expressing character and cultural influences into the spaces. In addition the same fabric can be used as curtains for the windows when needed. The total cost for construction amounts to USD 6000 for the single unit which will be an estimate per square meter for an the building extensions that have been anticipated in the design.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 10:27:34 GMT -6
THE WEAVERBIRD HOUSE
Design Team: Elizabeth Blundell and Georgina Vizor (UK)
The Weaverbird House The Ghanaian family is broad and long; it is not uncommon for three generations to live together or to have more than three children in one home. There is a long history of hospitality, welcoming and providing for impromptu guests, often from the strong ties in the matriarchal line. We choose to design for the changing and growing needs of the family, rather than focusing on one type of professional or trades person. Exploring the activities of daily life we understood women dominate the domestic realm but to also be engaged in informal commerce; cooking and selling food in front of their homes or in the surrounding streets.
Environmental factors played a significant role in the design of the house. The shifting Inter Tropical Convergence Zone [ITCZ] affects the seasonal Harmattan winds. The buildings form and specifically the roof are designed to maximise air movement, with louvers at high level in bedroom drawing air up and out of the roof vent. The plan is offset, emulating a form that appeared in Ghanaian iconography that leaRnt itself to channelling and capturing the wind through a central passage. At the end of this route washing can be hung under the eaves; pink checked pinafores drying ready for school. The acute temperature variation between day and night and strong overhead sun throughout the day and year necessitated the deep eaves to protect the walls from heat. The external walls are unstabilised earth, 600mm thick; a depth that reduces the transference of heat through the earth mass in the early morning and late evening. The white wash footings reflect the sun but also help the presence of termites to be identified. With an average rainfall of 1000mm a year, the deep eaves also protect the footings of the walls from direct rain. A raised rammed earth plinth surrounds the building reducing water contact with the footings further. A gutter collects rainwater from the South West roof and a gravel drain reduces splash back from the North East. The Asrimaso District of the Kumasi region appears lush and abundant in mature vegetation. The intention for the collected rainwater is to maintain vegetation within the plot, facilitating cooling of the breeze as well as supporting a modest vegetable garden. Inside water is considered again where a lone block wall divides the bathroom and kitchen, to mitigate deterioration of earth walls. Tiles have been used sparingly around the bath and at the back of the toilet. The toilet has been brought inside employing a standard drainage system to two sealed concrete vaults used on alternate years. The bathroom is located in the South West wall encouraging drying (reducing the possibility of mould growth) and encouraging any unwanted smells outside.
The boundary of the property is defined by a smaller rammed earth wall with capping, hedge and trees. There is space in the future for a car, should the family be able to afford one, or perhaps a small workshop or bike shed. The windows are covered with insect mesh and within the window reveal double swing louvered shutters allow winds to blow through the house and also provide a degree of security. Outside the front door, the porch; again under the eaves allows the family to sit in the shade but to engage with activity on their street, watch the children at play and talk to the neighbours. Life in Ghana seems to revolve around the family, and the home revolves around all those that live there and pass through.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 10:40:29 GMT -6
Design Team: Gagandeep Jadhav (Mumbai, India)DESIGN STATEMENT
The challenge is to reinvent a typical mud house in Ashanti Region, by designing a single family unit of about 30x40 feetfor a middle class family, on a plot of 60 x 60 feet to be built by maximum use of earth and local labor in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The budget provided is $6,000.SITE
OPP JUASO- NSAWAM ROAD, ASANTE AKIM SOUTH, ASHANTI REGION,GHANA
Ghana has a tropical climate, since it is situated almost near the equator. Most of the houses there follow the traditional design of having a simple linear arrangement of rooms/spaces, consisting of a kitchen, store, bath and sleeping. For the interiors, an open courtyard is provided right in the middle of the house that offers cross ventilation of air. We designed the spaces, keeping in mind their traditional way of designing the house yet changing the standards of a mud hut and making it a statement that it is as durable and strong as any other modern dwellings made of R.C.C or cement blocks. Since the population per house is high, between 7-11 people, we have provided 5 rooms for sleeping, 2 baths, 2 toilets,a kitchen, living cum dining, a store, a verandah and a courtyard.
We have provided a small backdoor for wood and charcoal storage to be used in the kitchen. Separate water closets and bath provided for comfort of the users.CONSTRUCTION :
Foundation and plinth is made of laterite earth bricks which is cheap andabundantly available in Ashanti.
“It is soft when it is quarried and only hardens on exposure.” -http://www.prismma.in/laterite-as-a-building-material
Rammed earth is used to make the walls both external and internal. It is a method of building walls whereby a mixture of earth is compacted in layers between forms. The soil mix is carefully balanced between clay, sand and aggregate. The clay and moisture content of rammed earth is relatively low compared to that used for mud brick or other earth building methods.A wider range of soils are suitable when a small amount of cement is added to the mix. The result, known as ‘stabilised rammed earth’, is a strong masonry product which provides excellent thermal mass. www.rammedearthconstructions.com.au/ The
roofing is Pitched Thatched roof, with one meter overhangs to diffuse the harsh sunlight during the day. Thatch can be defined as any vegetation used to roof a structure. It provides effective insulation, it can withstand snow, wind, and rain and it’s easy to repair. www.thatching.com/thatching.html
Wood is used for framing the floor slab to support the first floor.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 10:54:15 GMT -6
Design Team: Marcus Hernandez (California, USA)
My design for this competition was initially a design for a cocoa education center project for my spring studio. The intent was that it would be able to be transformed into a residence for this competition. The concept of the project involves the converging of two axes, which, in the end, create a secure boundary for the residence. One axis represents the older generation of the family (parents) – the generation that is more independent and can protect themselves – depicted by the thinner line in the form transformation. The floor level of this axis is raised to indicate the higher knowledge of the parents. The other axis represents the younger generation (children) – those who need to feel more secure – portrayed by the thicker line. The floor level of this axis is lowered into the ground to depict the less, yet growing knowledge of the children. These two axes converge in the kitchen/dining space – the hearth of the residence – where the family comes together and spends quality time and shares their knowledge and experience.
The materials for the residence include rammed earth (for the boundary wall and the retaining wall), concrete (for foundation), palm timber (for the light structure), framing wood (to frame the screens), woven palm leaves (to provide screen walls), and corrugated zinc (for the roof). The layering of the rammed earth represents the layering of the family’s experiences, which in the end bound the residence. The palm timber represents a contrast to the heavy, thick earth and creates the separation between interior and exterior space. The woven palm leaf screen wall represents the merging of heavy and light (rammed earth and palm timber) – relating to the converging of the two axes.
The pricing of the materials is something that I could not find enough information for. I did keep the project simple and a bit smaller than 1200 s.f. to hopefully keep within the budget. The materials are also available locally – keeping within range of $6000.
Additionally, in response to the climate of Ghana, the design allows for a mix of cross ventilation and stack ventilation to keep within the comfort zone. Some of the screens are operable, allowing for such ventilation. The overhangs adhere to the summer and winter sun altitudes. Sections of the roof are cut out and raised in order to allow reflected light into the spaces. The corrugated zinc is also known for protecting from precipitation and allowing for drainage.
The design is meant to be simple yet very meaningful for the family. It is meant to respond to the climate of Ghana, while at the same time provide a safe, secure, and inviting space for the family to live in.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 11:03:32 GMT -6
Design Team: Julie KEBE GANGNEUX (France)
The Project is to design a single-family in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.
Localisation: First, the single-family House take place in Kumasi who is the capital of an ancient West African empire: Ashanti. "Today, Kumasi still is the centre of the Ashanti culture. This culture still plays an important role in everyday life in Kumasi". Anne Bayens
He take place exactly in Aboabo, the poor neighbourhood in Kumasi «Bordered by the railway slums which is one of the few informal settlements of the city» Anne Bayens. With a grow rate of over 3,5 percent per year, Kumasi is today growing much faster than the capital Accra. Therefore we need also to construct an House reply to the need of doing density in the center of this city. We suggest to built only half-space of this land. The other space is a reserve area for the future when the Family will grow or for another Family.
We can see in the masterplan the predominant of the Compound House around the land. This dominating role makes the typology function as a module that makes up the city. He forms the base of the urban structure of Kumasi and creates a strong order and defines the relationship between public and private.»
Conception: How to built a contemporary mud hut in Ghana?
Kumasi is located in a tropical forest zone. Our design in oriented to use the natural ventilation from the south west wind and to protect from the sun:
- large roof and the position of the opening
- roof protection
- earth wall who are low thermal conductivity
- a flexible shading system
The plan is separated in two blocks linked by an private exterior space: the courtyard. In front we find the bedroom and the livingroom on the first floor. In the center we find a kitchen/bathroom module. This two program are together. It's better for water recycling and the heating water production.
In the main side (North side) we reproduce a part of the traditional Ashanti house:
-using the symbol of Ingenuity
-the different depth composed the front
Also we decide to place the Ingenuity House in front of the main road. In the backside, the House is smaller and the vegetable garden write a new relationship with the small pedestrian street. The project try to recreate all the space present into the traditionnal compound: interior space, inner courtyard, the space of meeting, the African kitchen ...
It’s important to know the expressing of the Ashante symbol who are present into the Inhabitant House.
Material: Mud architecture can be : «beautiful and durable» and there is several design possibility. In this project whose name Ingenuity, we decide to construct both in Bamboo and Raw earth. In fact, the Bedroom unit is made of rammed earth. Building a rammed-earth wall involves compressing a damp mixture of earth that has suitable proportions of sand, gravel and clay. We construct a first floor in Bamboo. The wall are made in "woven bamboo wall" . This material is becoming a close substitute for wood, cheaper and a new industrial development. And the last module, the kitchen-bathroom is made in mud brick. The roof is in corrugated zinc sheets, which is the conventional roofing materials because zinc roofing stands the heavy rainfall.
Budget: 6400 USD
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 11:16:14 GMT -6
ENTRY # 328505249
Design Team: Adriano Brüstle (Wien, Austria)
This design proposal is for a house for a family with four children in the Ashanti region of Ghana. As site was chosen a loose accumulation of typical compound houses outside the centre of a small town or large village.
The house consists of two separate buildings which each only 3m depth to enable equal cross ventilation in every room. The two elements form a courtyard together with a boundary wall.
Aside from the main courtyard, which is used as living space, there is a small kitchen courtyard to provide an outside cooking space without disturbing the main courtyards activities.
The house is designed to appeal to the local people by providing a courtyard and visual connection from the living space to the environment but at the same time provides protection. Although the fact that it is constructed from mud is not hidden, it can still be desirable due to a durable construction.
Many design and material choices have been made to minimize wasted materials.
Due to the hot and humid climate in the region, a one sided inclined roof was chosen to support good natural ventilation and allow rain to run off quickly. The roof is constructed with standard timber beams and is tiled with Micro Concrete Tiles (MCT). These tiles are cheaper than the usually used corrugated metal, can be reused due to better durability and have climatic advantages for the interior. Additionally in some rooms (bedroom, living room) the roof is insulated with straw or coconut fiber which prevents heat conduction from the roof.
The walls are mainly constructed with sun dried mud bricks for financial reasons. Parts under each roof beam are reinforced with compressed mud bricks (with 5% cement) to ensure stability. The free standing boundary wall around the courtyard is also reinforced with compressed bricks up to about 1m height to prevent deterioration. Outside walls are protected with a cement/laterite plaster and lime whitewash up to 120cm over ground. Gable walls are covered with it completely. Inside the walls are covered with simple mud plaster.
The foundation is constructed with concrete despite the high price due to lack of comparable alternatives. A raised floor which connects all rooms on the exterior is also concrete. Most rooms however have a floor of rammed mud.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 11:24:06 GMT -6
ENTRY # 328196451
Design Team: Maxime Hedin, Rémi Kneipp and Ingrid Guiard (France)
La maison de l’arbre (The house of the tree): a place of tradition and openness to the environment and community
Our first decision was to position our house in relation to an existing, high-quality feature to be maintained and highlighted. A powerful symbol: a mature tree.
Moving on from this point of departure, we wanted to design a house able to harmonise bonds within the township and preserve the memory of traditional, rural architecture with the ambition of bringing people together to exchange ideas.
A home where family could flourish, but also the community.
A simple, functional home that stays close to its surroundings.
The result is a pairing of two cells forming a single space divided by an inner courtyard (a protected space extending the house’s inner world)
The basic form is simple in its geometry.
The walls are sculpted from a blend of laterite earth using local expertise.
The inner spaces can be adjusted in line with its future occupant’s functional needs and aesthetic preferences.
The large roof protecting the space from rain and sun is an ingenious concept.
We have paid very special attention to it: a framework of locally produced bamboo from the Ashanti region underlies a roof of galvanised corrugated sheet metal protected by a layer of hemp whose exceptional properties are well-known: resistance, waterproofing, insulation, opacity, anti-mould.
The hemp sheet is also locally produced.
Pebbles from the construction site are placed on the roof to fix the sheet in place, thus avoiding the need for any extra or complex construction: quick and practical, possible for all.
A series of openings at the top of the façade facing the dominant winds optimise natural ventilation, allowing the hot air to be expelled via the venturi effect.
Situated in a sunken area that is not directly visible, the shower room in the garden offers a separate, hidden-away area within a bamboo spiral.
It offers a feeling of comfort, of being at the heart of nature.
Again community-minded, the WCs are found outside the plot.
It is a simple solution: a desire to offer a high-performance and comfortable project for future users but also for neighbours.
The idea is to create a healthy environment for the community through a significant public-spirited gesture.
The inclusion of a bamboo enclosure around the house conceals it from the neighbouring area.
It also helps create the design’s visual identity.
Through its simple and elegant design the maison de l’arbre’s architecture reaffirms the identity and role of clay houses as the hub of the community, a cultural and social hub, contributing to the wellbeing of all.
Our project’s urban concept is open to adaptation: it fulfills our ambition of integrating these homes as a series of accessible and interconnected spaces, yet remaining private and well-defined.
By encouraging the appropriation of places and interactions with local neighbouring areas, and by redefining urban settings within the natural environment, we are contributing to the township’s warm atmosphere and the value attributed to both family values and the community.
The estimated cost of the house is less than 3000 USD , the materials are local, and simplicity of the house does not require complicated work with expensive professional.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 11:31:42 GMT -6
Design Team: Taylor A. Holloway and David C. Zielinski (Chicago, USA)
As Kumasi expands and absorbs nearby towns and cities, towns located directly on main roads benefit from easy access to the metropolis. Toase is one such town, located 29 km west of Kumasi in the Atwima Nwabiagya district. It is included in the National Electric Grid and serves as a middle ground for residents that leas a semi-urban lifestyle as well as those that are employed in the agricultural sector. As architectural descendants of traditional Asante style buildings, prototypical Ghanaian houses separate rooms with uncovered outdoor courtyards. While these houses provide privacy for life's daily activities and interior daylighting, they limit sight lines to the street and are often without a transitional space that invites the public inward or prepares the family for traveling outward.
Akwantu Outside references the significance of the courtyard lifestyle by preserving an enclosed outdoor area, while expanding that typology through the creation of a succession of public and private spaces. Akwantu, meaning ‘journey’ in Akan, alludes to the house’s design which moves all shared activities outside under the trellis or into the courtyard. The shaded entry veranda provides expansive views of the street and neighborhood and a way-finding view of the path into the house. Once inside the home, wood trellises cover open-air walkways and are conceived more as convening paths than hallways. Circulating outside provides occupants with passive knowledge of who else is home as well as natural ventilation, sunlight, and protection from rainfall. The inner courtyard, the primary outdoor living space, flexibly suits cooking, washing, playing, and the act of gathering.
Three bedrooms are positioned on the eastern half of the house to receive the first light. These spaces naturally cool by nightfall as the sun moves westward throughout the day. The kitchen’s location establishes it as the bridge between the street and the inner courtyard. Its opposite, enlarged openings to the veranda and courtyard are designed to maximize the movement of visitors and family while increasing sight lines to the street and the rest of the house. The southwestern location of the bathroom removes the space from populated programs in the rest of the house. A pour-flush latrine features a squat pan and trap inside and two below grade leech pits with a flow diversion chamber outside. The gravity shower allows occupants to bathe by filling an elevated water cistern and manually controlling a spigot inside the shower area. Between the kitchen and the bathroom, a 5’-0” x 8’0” room can act as storage or an additional sleeping space. The enlarged window in this room features solid doors instead of louvers so that the windows can be utilized as walk up window for an at-home shop or business venture.
On the exterior, louvered wood windows, are positioned below fixed lattices that allow rooms to be ventilated with the movement of air in through the windows and out through the raised roof trusses. Roof overhangs extend 5’-0” beyond exterior walls to provide shade for windows and weather protection for the walls. Flooding and moisture collection is avoided by raising the finished floor height 2'-0" above grade. The walls are structured using FormBlock to cast earth in-situ, with windows and doors framed-out with wood lintels. The finish face of the wall can be left rough showing individual courses, or plastered with mud for a more finished aesthetic. Akwantu Outside maximizes passive systems while simultaneously bringing family and visitors together indoors and outdoors. It proposes that homes can be designed to nurture existing lifestyles and also be contemporary precedents in their definition of living space and building technology.
Akwantu Outside Project Budget Total Project Cost: $5,949.00
Project Square Footage 1,175 Square Feet
Foundation Material Price Units Quantity Total Cost Notes
Concrete - - - - $560.00 1'-0" deep spread footing @ Walls
Cement $10.00 1 bag 40 $400.00 50 kg bags
Sand - - - $60.00
Small Aggregate - - - $100.00
Wall Construction Material Price Units Quantity Total Notes
FormBlock 738 Blocks $740.00
Cement $10.00 1 bag 74 $740.00 5 kg/block minimum @ 50 kg bags
Earth - Cubic Feet 1,440 cubic ft. $0.00 1.95 cft/block (assume earth used from site)
Bond Beam $448.00
Wood $2.00 Linear Foot 224 $448.00 $2.00/linear foot @ 224 linear feet
Roof Construction Material Price Units Quantity Total Notes
Corrugated Zinc Roof Sheeting $1,200.00
Corrugated Zinc Sheets $120.00 Packet 10 $1,200.00 10 Packets of Corrugated Zinc Roof Sheeting
Roof Trusses $906.00
Truss 1 (4 total) Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 448 $448.00 $1.00/linear ft. @ 112 linear ft/truss
Truss 2 (4 total) Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 240 $240.00 $1.00/linear ft. @ 60 linear ft/truss
Truss 3 (4 total) Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 160 $160.00 $1.00/linear ft. @ 40 linear ft/truss
Truss 4 (1 total) Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 34 $34.00 $1.00/linear ft. @ 34 linear ft/truss
Truss 5 (1 total) Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 24 $24.00 $1.00/linear ft. @ 24 linear ft/truss
Roof Framing $298.00
Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 298 $298.00 $1/linear ft. @ 298 linear ft.
Labor Material Price Units Quantity Total Notes
Unskilled Labor $210.00
- $7.00 Days 30 $210.00 Unskilled Labor @ $7/Day
Skilled Labor $300.00 Skilled Labor @ 10.00/Day
- $10.00 Days 30 $300.00 Unskilled and Skilled Labor calculated at an equivalent of 30 days work for one person
Miscellaneous Material Price Units Quantity Total Notes
8 Blade Louvered Windows Wood $7.00 - 9 $63.00 8 Blade Louvered Windows
Wood/Metal $6.00 - 6 $36.00 Strap Hinged Doors
Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 62 $62.00 $1.00/Linear ft @ 4-6 linear ft/lintel
Wood Slat Walls $380.00
Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 380 $380.00
Wood $1.00 Linear Foot 120 $120.00 $1.00/Linear ft @ 120 linear ft.
Structural Columns $176.00
Wood $2.00 Linear Foot 88 $176.00 $2.00/Linear ft @ 88 linear ft
Pour-Flush Latrine $150.00
Pour-Flush Latrine System $150.00 - 1 $150.00 Twin Pit Pour Flush Latrine
Contingency Material Price Units Quantity Total Notes
5% Project Contingency $300.00
- $300.00 - 1 $300.00 5% contingency on $6000 project budget
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 11:51:35 GMT -6
Design Team: Pascal Ferreira, Gwenaëlle Le Bris and Thomas boutefeu (France)
Program: design a housing unit 30 x 40 feet (9,144 mx 12.192 m) by making maximum use of earth and the local workforce
Lot: 60 x 60 feet (18.288 x 18.288 m m)
Location: Ashanti Region, Ghana
Successful form of housing, the enclosure house or courtyard house because:
- Provides better adaptation to hot and humid tropical climate
- As habitat mostly prevalent in the Ashanti Region
- Typological variation: shift the court on one side in order to offer more generous living spaces, covered by roofs with wide impressive overhangs.
Spatial organization: Rectangular plan respecting the statement of the competition (30 x 40 feet)
The project is in a urban area of Ashanti, Kumasi. The Urban Mudhouse was designed for a middle-income family. The earth, a sustainable and durable building material is used in order to reconcile the population with the locals rejudices. The house is based on the principles of design for climatic comfort with low costs construction, inducing the use of local materials and the constructive potential of the local labour. The imported materials are used in a minority. It is also designed as a model in order to sensitize the merits of the earth construction. The house was realized as a series of units on a constructive frame, respecting a 10 feet. The program is comparable to the one of traditional Ashanti house. The spaces are developed around a courtyard, true place of the family daily life.
The simplicity of the design and minimal use of bought materials means that it can easily be adopted by the inhabitants. The ceilings of spaces are barrel vaults built starting from raw mud bricks (except for the circulations).
This method of construction calls on local resources and is climatically and acoustically effective. Indeed, they allow a thermal comfort and an acoustic protection during summer rains. The construction is protected by a metal roof fixed on a made metal structure of still truss of low diameter. Broad exceeded roof protect the walls from water. This process which is already existing in ghanaian houses, takes a form of eclipse and gives a certain seal to the building. This disunited on-roof allows a natural ventilation bringing an essential and effective thermal comfort. To protect the walls against the increase of moisture, the mud brick walls are built on a cement base and granitic rocks. Cement, material imported and thus expensive, is mixed with the rocks in order to save money for the concrete.
The floors are made out of rammed down lateritic earth, a mixture of earth, water and cow dung. This technique is used in the north of Ghana is very economic because of use of materials in-situ. A rammed earth wall leads to the entry. This construction made of walls with earth layers and so different colors is not only aesthetic, but is also a pure reminiscence of the compound of Ghanaian traditional construction. Lastly, the local labour participation will be the key of the success of this project. It will enable them to acquire new competences preserving at the same time tradition and innovative aspects of construction.
QUANTITY UNITY PRICE
TOTAL 1 850 $
Excavating and earthmoving work 40 MB
Concrete slab 20 MB
Concret and stones gilders 36 MB
Concret block 3 U
2. MASONRY WALLS
TOTAL 2 800 $
Rammed earth wall 15 MB
Mud bricks : load-bearing walls 100 M2
Mud bricks : partition walls 30 M2
Mud bricks : barrel vault 15 70 M2
3. STEEL STRUCTURE - ROOFING
TOTAL 1700 $
Stell truss structure (l = 30 ft) 2 U
Stell truss structure (l = 20 ft) 3 U
Corrugated metal roof 170 M2
Steel cross column 30 FT
TOTAL 300 $
Interior mud floor 70 M2
Courtyard mud floor 20 M2
5. STEEL DOORS AND SHUTTLES
TOTAL 600 $
Steel doors with ventilation louvers 3 U
Steel shuttles with ventilation louvers 4 U
Steel interior door (bath) 1 U
Optional equipment :
Interior door 3 U
Cupboard door 8 U
TOTAL 70 $
Washing basin 1 U
Shower 1 U
Squat toilet 1 U
Kitchen sink 1 U
7. EXTERIOR EQUIPMENT
TOTAL 80 $
Stell side door 1 U
Metal coping 65 FT
Mud oven and cooking place 1 U
Plant bed, trees, hen house 1 U
TOTAL 7 400 $
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 12:24:44 GMT -6
Design Team: Louis Mayes (London, UK)INTRODUCTION
Sited near Kuntanse on the breezy northern shore of Lake Botswame, the house sleeps up to 7 people and is planned around the importance of having a living space to share with family and friends. The house uses easily available and procurable materials combined with easily taught new techniques. This will create a new typology within the wider context of Ghana. The house will cost only $4500 to construct in its entirety. The supporting walls of the house are made from laterite based cast earth mixed with a derivative of lime (the lighter colour helps to reflect the sun and therefore heat better). The strength of cast earth is comparable to a medium strength concrete and will not erode like other mud structures. The most prominent feature of the building is the bamboo/ wooden apex which supports vegetation and provides shade to the zinc roof, as well as a further recreation space on the upper storey where you might sling your hammock! This wooden structure sits on a concrete tie beam and overhangs the structure by two metres each end, allowing for effective shading. This structure is this high because when you are sailing out on the lake, it is possible to see back to where you are staying.
The living area includes a linear multi functional space which acts as link/ ventilation area/ shared recreation space/ storage, amongst other uses yet to be seen. There are views over the lake from all living areas through the bespoke made louvres. The kitchen is joined to the main large living area by a hatch which also serves as a table, allowing for food to be served easily. This shows the integration of Ghana’s customs in the design- where a group will sit around a single pot served from several charcoal burners in the kitchen. The house has been futureproofed for modern facilities to be installed as needed. The bedrooms are shown on in blue. Situated on the eastern side, they are out of the sun in the evening and therefore cooler. The loo is removed from the living spaces and under a separate roof, whilst also within undercover reach of the bedrooms.
The site is accessed by track from a nearby town about 8 kilometres east of Kuntanse. Its siting near to the shore is two-fold- for Jojo’s tourist business boat store but also to provide an aesthetically pleasing view across the water (marked in red). The 60x60’ site is split in two-public and private space. Private space is outlines in red with blue hatch. On the left is the dive. The house doesn’t look over this side, although light is admitted through slats higher in the wall. On the other side, there is room for a small vegetable garden and a chicken hut. There is the option to enclose your house with fencing but due to the site this is not seen as necessary.
Jojo lives with his wife, Afi, and their two children. He is thirty two. A former manager at the wood mill situated to the west of Kuntanse, he was made redundant following the clamping down on deforestation in Ghana. Recently, the two have started a small business which involves offering bespoke sailing holidays to tourists. In the long term, Jojo hopes to build not one but two houses made of traditional materials, one of which will form his house and the other a rented accommodation for the tourists to stay in so that he doesn’t have to pay for the tourists to stay at the local hotel on the western shore.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 19:12:26 GMT -6
ENTRY # 000000001
Design Team: GreenAnts (Saudi Arabia)
The proposed design is based on GreenAnts II Mantra II Place, People, Performance and Participation. The Design as homage to the inspirational mud works by Laurie Baker. The Form is meant to translate the Harmony, Rhythm and Vibrancy of the Ghanaian Xylophone into a living habitat at Human Scale. The Function is redefined to accommodate the livelihood priorities instrumenting the growth, education & self sufficiency. The Performance is diligently assessed against the existing weather data, constrains and past failures. Annual material performance is simulated and optimized strategy is proposed purely based on the Cost & Value. The intangible values are embedded in the design as social responsibility in the form of Quality of Life / Education / Emergency Preparedness / Self Sufficient / Inspiring. The Budgeted Cost of 5950$ was duly investigated in detail for various sequences; the most widely used rammed earth, zinc roofing is chosen based on the easy availability of the resources. The conventional construction practice offsets the need of any skill training & resourcing. The design & construction is orchestrated to a pentatonic human scale of architectural spaces, structure, wall, roof & colors.
The virtual characteristics of the proposed built environment led to the idea of naming the habitat as XyloHood.P4 . The TeamAnts is proud to present there dream project & muddy pride for competing. The design statement is to be read in conjunction with GreenAnts sheet submittals, estimations, schedules, notes & symbols.
Thanks to Nka Foundation.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 20:01:02 GMT -6
Design Team: Michael Griffiths (Manchester, UK) Design Statement – ‘’The Akantansao Treehouse’’
Location: The chosen site for the design is Akantansao, a small area located a few kilometres to the North of Nyinahin, the capital of the Atwima Mponua district of Ashanti in Ghana.
Materials and Construction: The chosen construction method for the design is cob construction, similar to the well known ‘’Atakpame’’ method which originated in near-by Togo. Cob construction is ideal in fulfilling the design brief because it is more cost-effective than forms of shuttered earth construction and requires less specialist skills. The earth will be sourced from as close by to the construction site as possible. The building method will allow many different members of the local community to be involved in mixing and building. The design brief referred to the need for a change in conception of earth construction, based upon previous examples of poor construction. The key to achieving better quality earth buildings is to protect the cob at its weakest points, for this reason we have specified a 2 foot high stone plinth at ground level and substantial roof overhangs above. The roof structure is of locally sourced timber trusses and purlins, supporting a simple roof cladding of corrugated zinc sheets. The floor is supported by timber floor joists supported by the stonework with timber boarding and finished with an earthen screed. The idea was that a suspended floor system will encourage more cross-flow ventilation for the building, while the earthen screed produces the floor finish that is preferred locally. The layout of the building is such that the roof is supported by a series ‘cob columns’ reinforced with timber (see structural layout on sheet 2). This structure can be built initially very quickly, so that in a village a few of these basic structures could be constructed during dry weather. The rest of the structure, protected by the main roof, could be continued even during wet periods.
The Layout: The floor layout has been set out with the bedrooms on the East, making them the cooler parts of the house in the evening. The kitchen walls are not directly connected to the other living areas to avoid heat from cooking being transferred to other areas of the house. On the concept design a small access stair up on top of the canopy area (where the ‘Akantanso treehouse’ name is from) within the roof space is included. Here the design may alter on different house types dependent on the budget, the stair switching to ladder access. The canopy space may be used for storage or alternatively an additional living space, again dependent on budget. Another advantage of this roof space is to ensure the roof is maintained easily.
2.1 The Budget
Roof Trusses = $633 ($105 per truss)
Zinc Roofing = $1,200
WC = $65
Basin = $32
Bath = $50
Floor beams = $205
Lightweight timber cladding = $412.80
Infill timber for ceiling and floor = $1240
Doors = $20
Windows = $98
Locally-sourced stone $312
Kitchen = $460
Staircase = $645
Labour = $620
Walls = labour cost only
Total = $5,992.80
2.2 Site Dimensions
House = 54.4ft x 20.8ft / Plot = 67.2ft x 49.6ft
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 20:33:20 GMT -6
Design Team: Ioanna Volaki (Athens, Greece)
The house is designed taking into account the local climatic conditions and the local traditional architectural forms. The layout is based on a 12 x 12 feet grid applied to the 60 x 60 feet plot. The grid becomes the base where open, closed and open covered spaces intertwine according the the owner's specific needs. The advantage of this structure is the possibility of many variations of spaces both in the physical and social sence. It is a highly flexible structure.
The housing units are made of rammed earth on concrete foundations and are raised 60 inches above ground. The walls that encircle the open spaces are made of perforated mud bricks that allow cooling breezes to enter the house. They can form various patterns depending on the desired effect and when strategically placed in the layout of the house can create a functional ventillation system. A second ventilation system can be accomplished in section by the cooling chimneys that run along the roof tops of the units.
The chimneys also bring in a controlled amount of light inside the units creating a skylight effect without heating up the space.
The roofs will be mainly constructed of earth reels, with finishings out of corrugated roof sheets.
Rammed earth wall 1.618,00 USD
Perforated brick wall 432,60 USD
Concrete foundation 1655,00 USD
Roof 1.635,00 USD
Roof chimney 860,00 USD
Door frames 80,00 USD
Window frames 21,00 USD
w.c facillities 97,00 USD
Kitchen facillities 100,00 USD
TOTAL 7.440 USD
The estimated cost is higher than the requested one but it can be easily adjusted because of the flexibility of the design.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 20:40:10 GMT -6
Design Team: André Costa Gomes (Porto, Portugal)
The proposal’s main objective is to respond to the premises stated by the Nka Foundation in order to overcome the stigma that mud housing is for the very poor. The main concept is to reinterpret the local traditions of living with a modern design in which the residents can relate to. The goal is not only to design the building, but to improve people’s lives through architecture. The main construction material is a hand pressed small sized mud brick (around 8’’ x 4’’ x 4’’ or 20x10x10 cm). This material was chosen because of the possibilities it offers of being used in various ways on the construction conception and on facade composition. The brick allows having in numerous ways to overlap them creating interesting rhythms and textures in the facade. The choice of the township is mainly based in the urban planning. The building was designed to integrate in any township that has the desired orientation for the implantation site. Many of them follow this orientation (SW/NE), such as Yonso, Ochereso, Dadiasi, Kuntanase, etc.
Functionality: The whole 60’ x 60’ plot is divided in four different areas with varied uses: an entrance courtyard with space for a possible tree implantation; an elevated platform in which there is a small plot with fertile soil for sustainable/business agriculture (fertilized by the septic tank used by the family) and a paved courtyard related to the entrance and the kitchen of the house.
The interior logic is based on traditional ways of living. There are four space patterns in the house: the porch, the living, the services (kitchen and bathroom) and the sleeping area.
- The porch is characterized by the colonnade which gives it the ability to became an exterior or interior space, using bamboo shade.
- The living room is the family’s common space, providing access to the kitchen and to the childrens’ bedrooms.
- The kitchen is also related to the patio, making possible to have a meal in the courtyard.
- There are three sleeping rooms, allowing to accommodate a big family with up to 10 elements. The parents’ room is more private and is related to the porch, and the other two rooms are related to the living room.
The major concern of the house orientation and design is to achieve the best ventilation and sun protection as possible. The house orientation is toward southwest/northeast, corresponding to the main wind orientation in the Ashanti region, in order to enhance the wind flow in all divisions of the house. With the simple technique of taking a few bricks in some parts of the facade, ventilation is guaranteed in every division of the house. The use of bamboo in the doors and windows also allows that, even when closed, the wind will still flow. This orientation is also important to protect the northern exposed facade from rain, because it will be in the opposite side of the wind direction. The house is elevated about 24 inches to prevent water flooding and also for ventilation purposes.
Aesthetics: The design follows the 30’ x 40’ given, creating a very horizontal rectangular volume. This horizontality is broken by the vertical element of the kitchen: the chimney. This chimney is the perfect symbiosis between aesthetics and functionality. It is the formal exception and also a natural ventilation system.
Technical: There will be only three main materials used in the construction: stabilized mud bricks, wood and corrugated zinc. The foundations are in poured cement, the structure for the roof and the floor will be in wood and the roof in corrugated zinc. The idea is to think local, and acquire the materials in the surrounding area (e.g. the wood for structure and the bamboo sticks from the nearby forest). The bricks production can be made during the construction process (around 50.000 bricks).
In spite of the difficulties, the estimated budget for construction is:
Corrugated Zinc: 1200$
Bathroom equipment: 140$
Kitchen equipment: 180$
Septic Tank: 100$
Bricks labor production: 2800$
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 20:48:10 GMT -6
Design Team: Chara Farquharson (Arkansas, USA)
The main idea behind the project is not only to redefine the idea of the African mud house, but to create a design which reflects a strong connection between interior and exterior. The form is inspired by the African cloth symbol for excellence. The site location is in Amakom, Kumasi just south of the main Accra Road. This location is primarily residential and was chosen due to its close proximity to local universities, local markets and other business and retail stores.
The overall design scheme consists essentially of four rectangles that are joined together by a central space that opens into the living and dining space. The overall theme of the project is to promote continuity between the interior and the exterior through openings and a continuous east-west axis which connects each space. The house is elevated from the ground to accommodate for ventilation and flooding. There are two bedrooms which can house between 4 and 6 persons. The out house is located to the south west of the house where a composting (dry) toilet is incorporated into the design scheme. The primary materials consist of rammed earth, zinc metal sheathing and local wood.
Walling (earth): no cost
Roofing: $ 1,000
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 20:57:11 GMT -6
Design Team: Emanuele Cavallo, Paolo Restelli, Antonino Agueci and Elisa Orefice (Italy)
We believe that in an urban context it is important to contain the growth in urban centers that already exist, to fight the sprawl.
For this reason, the site chosen for the construction is near Kumasi, the most populous city in the Ashanti region, with 2,000,000 inhabitants. The presence of the Wood Village in the south of Kumasi is a strong element for urban growth. The production of waste materials such as sawdust and wood chips, difficult to dispose, is a known problem related to the processing of timber.
This led us to choose an earth construction technique generally associated to timber frame structures. Around 1980 a group of French and German researchers started studying old earth construction techniques and developed a method in order to use low environmental impact materials that can be associated both to self-construction and industrial production processes. Knew with the name of Lightclay, this technique uses the earth in a liquid state for compacting green elements of small dimensions (wood chips or straw) and give a product with a mass capable of storing heat within the walls and, at the same time, with good thermal resistance capability.
The result is a highly eco-friendly house built with local products and, specifically, with wood industry wastes. This is why we choose the DENKYEM symbol to represent our project: there are no problems, only solutions…the “adaptability” is a great solution to build safe and healthy houses from the environment.
(1) Foundation = $ 2020
(2) Walling = $ 830
(3) Roofing = $ 2700
(4) Fittings = $ 320
(5) Miscellaneous = $ 80
working labour costs are included in each voice
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 21:10:46 GMT -6
Design Team: Christopher Wejchert
The Adobe Mud House
For this project my underlying aim was to design a regenerative human habitat for a middle-income family living in a tropical climate.
I assumed that this south-sloping plot of land was located in Ejisu Juaben, because of its proximity to Abetenim village where Nka Foundation is based and materials such as bamboo, timber are accessible from reliable resources. I then analyzed the energy flows through this 60x60 plot of land: the wind, the sun, the water, the vegetation and the soil. My proposal for a 40x30 mud house was inspired by the flows through the site. I placed the building quite simply along a north south axis and decided to stick with the 40x30 dimensions because it fit on the site quite well and because the north side was quite exposed to the north/northeast prevailing winds. Large openings allow air to enter through the building and ventilate interior spaces including the courtyard.
The spatial arrangement was made according to orientation and resultant solar heat gain. The kitchen and washroom are placed on the west since they are cool in the morning and afternoon. The living and eating and storage areas are located on the south side since overall they are the coolest areas in the building throughout the day. The bedrooms are placed in the north and east sides since they are cool in the evenings and nights. The courtyard in the center of the building is designed to be a socially interactive space but also to create more thermally comfortable environment. Vegetation in the courtyard receives light and water through the opening in the roof and in turn cools the surrounding air by a degree or two through evapotranspiration. The cool air generated in the courtyard is carried through to the living and eating area where people will most likely be spending most of their time together.
The kitchen and washroom are separated from the rest of the building because they are likely to generate heat and deal with water. Greywater from the shower, urinal and kitchen sinks can be channeled outside through a barrel grease trap and then into a constructed wetlands. At the foot of the constructed wetlands would be an ideal place to have a vegetable garden, taking advantage of the newly cleaned water and closing the loop. Solid kitchen waste from the can be composted and used in the garden. Solid human waste goes into the compost toilet that produces humanure, which is good for fruit trees and restoring drylands.
The adobe mud house will rest on foundations made of stabilized rammed earth and on an earthen floor. The walls will be constructed with adobe bricks (4x10x14) because they are easy to handle and build with. The top 500mm of the wall will be constructed with stabilized adobe bricks in order for the roof structure to tie onto with metal straps. The ring beam will be of timber but the rest of the roof structure will be made with bamboo. Electricity services for lighting and cookers in the kitchen can be integrated in the roof structure. The roofing could either be thatch or palm leaves as they are traditional and local. Doors, frames and shutters will also be made with hardwood. In order to improve the lateral stability of the of the mud house bamboo posts could be tied at points along the perimeter of the roof structure down into pile foundations along the base of the walls.
Incremental additions over time could be a ceiling, partition walls for the living eating space, shed, entrance gates, pv system etc.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 21:18:04 GMT -6
Design Team: Bongani Muchemwa and Steven McCloy (Leeds, UK)
Project Name: Un-Picked House
Estimated Cost: US$6,000 to US$10,000
The dress in the wardrobe
The jewellery in the draw
The book on the shelf
The room in the house
The house in the village
The village in the city
These elements are enveloped by a body, the Un-Picked House is imagined as a celebration of the individual artefacts that make up our buildings and built environment; the special dresses are laid out on the bed, the rooms of the house are not restricted to notions of solid division walls, instead each piece of the house is a sculptural functional item with its own character, individuality and purpose.
The design concept imagines a house as a micro city for a family of four with an annex for visitors or use by extended family and has been design to take into account each occupant from the playful children, to the fashionable parents and the elderly grandmother. The individual rooms act as monuments on an open plan semi-outdoor space, which is protected by a security mesh and a delicate white curtain that blows gently in the wind, creating an isolated and dreamlike quality to the house; it is connected to nature and to the free-plan lives of the inhabitants.
Construction and Materials
The roof is made from corrugated metal roof held up by a timber post and beam construction. The floors are made from brick or mud and cement mix screed, while the rest of the house is made from mud wattle and daub.
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 21:34:08 GMT -6
RED HOUSE GHANA
Design Team: Paul Alexander Cohoon (London, UK)
Red House Ghana is a family home. A sunken lower level for sleeping, and upper airy level for living are accessed from the interior via an entry room, with a detached latrine.
Both upper and lower level connect to an open courtyard, via porches. The indoor/outdoor transitions provide a selection of outdoor spaces in shade and partial sun. Various circulation paths create a vessel for living for an extended family, allowing privacy, spaces for entertaining, and business.
The footprint of the building is 65 square metres (700 square feet).
Total interior area is 114.5 square metres (1230 square feet).
The courtyard area is 47 square metres (505 square feet).
Vernacular | Contemporary
Vernacular and contemporary are melded and molded to create a hybrid prototype. The home is constructed of walls of earth brick and rammed earth, with large overhanging timber and zinc roof – commonplace in vernacular design. A shallow excavation allows a two storey structure, whilst allowing all rooms to remain connected to the courtyard, through transitional porches. The large overhangs keep the thick earthen walls cool, and large openings provide natural ventilation. Heat in the sunken level is absorbed into the ground.
The layout of the building can easily be mirrored or rotated to catch prevailing winds. Based on site orientation, the main building can be pushed to the rear of the site, to allow future construction (including business) to face directly onto the street.
Economy and Expandability
Built as a rectangular extrusion over two levels, the house maximizes volume versus material requirements. Constructed to the single side of a courtyard, the property allows future expansion by the family (to provide additional living space as a family grows, a place for business, or an area for livestock) to be connected directly to the courtyard.
Pride of Home
Red House Ghana is a semi-urban home. Rising one and a half storeys above grade, the home will have a presence within a neighbourhood, without being ostentatious. The courtyard opens to the street, connecting the home to the community. A single entrance to the home and a single entrance to the courtyard ensure a secure home.
Ease of Construction and Maintenance
Site works involve a shallow excavation, and footings to receive the earthen walls. Local labour is able to complete all earthen work and timber joinery. Future expansion involves simple brick walls on a shallow concrete block footing. The latrine is detached from the main living spaces, and the tank contained within a separate concrete block foundation.
The budget is below $6000 USD, with additional savings to be made using volunteer labour.
Material Quantity Amount
hand pressed brick x 5800 $1,170.00
concrete block x 1150 $520.00
cement x 16 bags $168.00
sand x1 tip $60.00
flooring (plywood) x30 sheets $245.00
gravel x 1tip $100.00
zinc roofing x 8 packs $800.00
reinforcement / fixings $100.00
timber joists x 675 m $675.00
timber roof struts x 245 m $150.00
timber porch $200.00
timber windows, doors (11 doors, 13 windows) $385.00
sanitary fixtures $150.00
bug net / wire mesh $150.00
labour 4 skilled workers x 10 days $680.00
4 unskilled workers x 10 days$1170
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 21:42:22 GMT -6
ENTRY # 328048061
Design Team: Timur ERSEN and Anne-Lise ROUSSAT-NOYERIE (France)
Building with earth used to be common in the whole world. Industrialisation took over the construction from craftsmanship. From that time on, innovations, researches and new designs were excluding earth material. Nowadays, it suffers from a lack of knowledge and trust as well as of a bad image (architecture for poor or architecture of the past). We believe in the potential of this material and it’s our mission to rediscover all together the possibilities through building ambitious design and participatory building sites. Taking earth material context into account, we designed a contemporary rammed-earth house for the Ashanti region.
The « V » house is designed for a single family. It is organized around a central courtyard in a « V » shape creating three main buildings :
- to the west, the living room and kitchen are included in an unique space opened towards a terrace facing the courtyard. Bathroom and toilets are separated and hidden from the rest of the house in a corridor.
- to the south east, two bedrooms are able to host 2 single beds each.
- to the north east, the master bedroom and a space opened to the courtyard that can be used as library, office, second living room or guest room with wooden panels hidden in the library to close the space and transform it in a private bedroom.
In terms of construction, the foundations consist in concrete ground beams supporting load bearing rammed earth walls. A reinforced concrete ring beam make the connection to the wooden structure of the roof as well as serve as lintel for doors and windows. Corrugated iron sheets are a cheap solution for the roof. We raised the roof from the wall to allow a cross ventilation and avoid to over heat the house through the iron roof.
The floor is made of rammed earth covered with cement plaster. It lowers the presence of the colour red. Only the walls stay with the raw earth surface and colour. The rammed-earth technique creates wonderful surfaces charged in energy. Energy of the earth itself (living material capable of regulating humidity and equalising temperatures) and of the process of ramming that leaves the layers visible and always different. It is also a technique which minimalizes the used of water during the building process.
The kitchen is half-buried creating underground cupboard to store food using the coolness of the ground. The windows of the kitchen are lower than the others fostering the air circulation towards the outside through the space between the roof and the walls.
Solar protections consist in a three feet over hanging roof and louvers. The orientation of the house prevents the bedrooms from direct sun in the afternoon and evening. The courtyard provides additional ventilation and allows having small openings on the outer facade and large ones towards the courtyard keeping the inner spaces pleasantly cool.
All the bedrooms are closed with a bug net inserted into a wooden frame that is put on top of the ring beam. The house would be provided in electricity by the grid and equally for drinkable water. However, as the shape of the roof allows an easy collection of rainwater, it could be used for gardening. If the family budget allows it, a solar heater could produce hot water for shower and kitchen use. Toilets are connected to a sceptic tank.
Object Quantity Price per unit Total (USD)
Doors and windows Exterior Door 1 1 20$/unit 20
Exterior Door 2 1 14$/unit 14
Exterior Door 3 1 14$/unit 14
Interior Door 4 5 10$/unit 50
Interior Door 5 4 7$/unit 28
Mosquito net (323 ft2) 1 44$/unit 44
Windows 14 7$/unit 98
Foundations and Ring beam (440 linear feet) Ciment bags (77 lbs) 200 10,5$/unit 2050
Sand (truck of 140 ft3) 2 60$/unit 120
Aggregate (truck of 175ft3) 2 100$/unit 200
Rammed earth walls (1500 ft2) Earth 1800ft3 0 0
Formwork (planks and screws) 20
Formwork (plywood 4'x8') 8 units 8$/unit 64
Floor Ciment floor (1800 ft2) 200
Concrete blocks 80 1,25$/unit 100
Roof Wood 2'x3' 885 linear feet 300
Wood 2'x2' 1200 linear feet 200
Metal plate 10'x3' 56 168
Iron sheets 10 120$/unit 1200
Threaded rod 72 144
Plumbing WC seat 1 65$/unit 65
Washing basin 1 32$/unit 32
Electricity Global cost 100
Landscape Site layout/plants 100
Labour (1 qualified+3) 100 days 25$/day 2500
TOTAL (USD) 7881
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 21:53:02 GMT -6
Design Team: Rakietou Mamadou Ouattara (Borbeaux, France)
Our point of retreat, our space... A House, it is indeed much more than a simple construction! It is our 'corner' to us in the world. Unfortunately, it is clear that today ' today millions of people live in inadequate housing. Beyond the idea of refuge for humans, the House is also an element that has a strong impact on the environment in which it is located. It should participate to the maintains of the Earth balance. A good House, is that which, in addition to ensuring the comfort of its inhabitants, is implanted in the respect of bio climate. These findings will appear two driving concepts of our project: the comfort of the inhabitants and the idea of building without altering the chemical of the Earth element so that after destruction of the House, the land returns to Earth. Of course, all this should done by minimizing the construction costs. Indeed, the architecture is the 'thing' of all. Everyone, regardless of its origin and its revenues, must have a good and beautiful architecture.
The form of our project is inspired by that of the African traditional hut. Construction revolves around a cylinder which comes support roof sloping pants. The choice of this circular form is justified by social and cultural reasons. Indeed, the round shape is in the collective unconscious one that most closely. It is also that many African boxes wished. Admitting no angle, it abolished idea of exclusion. In a circle, everyone has his place, and all the worlds is a place. There's no hierarchy. This is why this rounded form will allow us to accommodate a space that adapts well to this idea of gathering, a common area, in which the members of the family can get together and share moments of conviviality: the dining room. All the other spaces come gravitate around this 'central' space, which is also vital for the balance of the construction, as well as that of family life.
Finally comes a last element, no less important, one that relates to the question of the material. According to our vision of things, the material is indeed a architecture, what is the reading for the intellect, or exercise for the body, to quote the famous quote from Joseph Addison. This is therefore to build earthen us appears as a very interesting alternative. Despite the financial gains that it allows us to realize, the Earth has also the advantage of being present everywhere and well used, it does not pollute the nature. The House will be built with mud bricks. The construction will be overhung by a zinc roof that will be used to protect the walls in Earth's water from rain and Sun. It will be connected to the Earth block by a steel structure. Foundations will be made concrete, in order to ensure protection of the area against water flows.
The project will be carried out in a hot and humid region. Thus, several precautions must be taken:
- obtain shadow
- protect the East and West faces against the sun's heat
- use materials with fresh surfaces - refresh spaces warm nights
- avoid the heat gain by conduction (through thermal insulation)
The project was think to stick to a budget of US $6,000, in the manner following:
Budget for the foundations, which will be realized in concrete:$2000
Budget for Earth construction: $1,500
Budget for roofing: $2,000
Post by Nka on Sept 2, 2014 22:07:49 GMT -6
ENTRY # 325812077
THE COURTYARD HUT
Design Team: Christina Antonelli (Greece)
The traditional courtyard house can be found in most areas of urban and rural Ghana. This project proposes a hut that is arranged around a tree. There is no specific location proposed in the Ashanti region. The only indicator of where it would probably fit better is the proximity of bamboo sources. The courtyard house is placed on the given dimensions’site (20m x 22m). Aiming at extroverting some of the areas, keeping privacy safe at the same time, it is created an extra semi open space around the house. On the next level it is attempted a cut of the internal spaces in order to create a wider and more distinguishable entrance area.It is decided to rotate the plan so as to make the most of the triangular space that is now created.
This space becomes the entrance of the house, the gathering point of all activities that take place in and out of house among its residents, the neighbors and the wider community members. It is thus arranged accordingly to accommodate and enhance all those activities.
It is proposed the use of earth and bamboo as much as possible (rammed earth walls and flooring on concrete footings, bamboo roof frame, bamboo screens, bamboo and thatched roof). Both earth and bamboo are materials locally available and do not require a lot of processing. They are old and traditional construction materials but yet aesthetically appealing with plenty of modern applications. Unskilled people can easily learn how to use them on new techniques. The proposed techniques are labour intensive which means that most of the money go to people and not to the materials.
The budget of $6,000 is achievable if the bamboo is sourced directly from the forest and not by a local provider.