Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 1:33:02 GMT -6
The proposed Mud House is inspired by the traditional Ashanti housing typology. The Ashanti House consisted of a series of rooms, which open onto a communal courtyard. This type of housing has rapidly been left behind due to the rise in popularity of new imported ‘western’ housing styles. These new houses function poorly in harsh climatic conditions and turn their back on the rich cultural value embedded within the local vernacular architecture. The design draws inspiration from the shared zone found in the Ashanti House. The courtyard is reconfigured in the design, taking the form of a breezeway, created from open plan living areas. These spaces can be opened up connecting the interior with the yard and the street. The ‘courtyard splits the house in two and sets up various threshold conditions, allowing the occupants to engage actively with the street, or to find refuge within the privates areas of the house.
Rammed Earth is the core material and was chosen for the simplicity of construction, its thermal properties and for the economy of the material being the finished surface and not requiring additional plastering. The formwork can be reused many times, allowing the builders to create many homes. Unskilled workers can do much of the work, which enables the employment of locals who will benefit from the skills, which they develop in the process. The roof framing is constructed out of steel reo bars, cut and welded on site to form roof trusses. A method developed by Francis Kere, Kere Architecture. The buildings form, a simple rectangular plan with a pitched roof, references the desire for newer ‘western’ homes, yet the materiality, texture, and planning are strongly connected with the traditional house.
The proposal is seen as stage one, setting up the core or the house, providing the occupants with the basic elements, enclosure and shelter. Stage 2 is undetermined and left up to the requirements of the new residents. The building can be expanded and extended to create one large home with generous living areas, or 2 smaller homes with shared cooking and bathing areas, or a series of small stores, or any number of combinations of the above. The designed flexibility references the growth of the traditional villages, which gradually grow and shift over time when required.
Based on estimates provided on following sites: nkaprojects.boards.net and rammedearth.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/rammed-earth-in-chad-sequel.html
3X SKILLED WORKERS - $10 PER DAY (10.5 DAYS)
5X UNSKILLED WORKERS- $7 PER DAY (2X MIXING AND 3X RAMMING 10.5 DAYS)
TOTAL $65 PER DAY
3X SKILLED WORKERS - $10 PER DAY (1 DAY)
144 BRICKS @ $1 PER BRICK
1X SKILLED WORKER - $10 PER DAY (1 DAY)
1X UNSKILLED WORKER- $7 PER DAY (1 DAY)
$1400 FOR 20MM REO
1X SKILLED WORKER (WELDING) - $10 PER DAY (10 DAYS)
$1200 FOR 30X40 FEET
2X SKILLED WORKERS - $10 PER DAY (1DAY)
1X UNSKILLED WORKER $7 PER DAY (1 DAY)
$120 FOR 12 DOORS ($10 EACH)
$120 FOR 12 DOOR HARDWARE SETS ($10 EACH)
1X SKILLED WORKER - $10 PER DAY (1DAY)
8 BAGS OF CEMENT $80 ($10 PER BAG)
2 TRUCKS OF SAND $120 ($60 PER TRUCK)
1 TRUCK OF GRAVEL $100 ($100 PER TRUCK)
18 BOXES OF WALL TILES $120
7 BOXES OF FLOOR TILES $70
2 X SKILLED WORKERS - $10 PER DAY (1 DAY)
2 BUNDLES $120
1 X SKILLED WORKER - $10 PER DAY (1 DAY)
FIXTURES AND FITTINGS:
BEDROOM $88 (2X BUG NETS)
1 X SKILLED WORKER - $10 PER DAY (2 DAYS)
2 X SKILLED WORKERS - $10 PER DAY (1 DAY)
TOTAL $5981 USD
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 7:32:42 GMT -6
The Earth Pavilion responds to the west African climate and the need for a simple yet elegantly designed earth home. Because of its simple construction, the house can be configured and adapted to various sizes making the the Earth Pavilion a dignified house that is attainable to many family types and sizes. Inspired by elements of traditional western African architecture, the house incorporates earth based construction, a courtyard and large roof overhangs to fulfill the need for beautiful, functional housing in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The rammed earth construction insulates and protects the home from extreme temperatures, and is a familiar material that is readily available.
Sited on a 60 foot x 60 foot plot, the pavilion-styled home features 3 bedrooms, 1 bath, a kitchen and an open living/dining space separated only by a storage wall; all at a size of 1370 square feet. It costs about $6000, distributing $2300 to foundations, $2050 for the walls and interiors and $1650 for the roof. The connecting bridge allows an adequate separation of public and private program while remaining visually connected through the courtyard.
The concrete-reinforced rammed earth walls are thick both for structural and thermal performance, while the wood framed windows keep the space cool and ventilated. The lower, large wood-framed windows bring in cool breezes and the higher, smaller clerestory windows vent out the warmer air. The courtyard is lined with a louvered door system that allows for airflow and opens the house up to the exterior environment. This outdoor room brings natural, indirect lighting into the house, facilitates cross ventilation, and serves as a visual and social connector for all the interior spaces.
The roof structure is made in two phases: a bond beam that traces the perimeter and then a poured slab that covers the inner spaces. This prevents leakage, rot and termite attacks of a traditional roof over time. The roof canopy is made from prefabricated metal trusses that are installed on top of the roof slab, providing shade and a 3-foot overhang to protect the earthen walls from rainy season torrents. The prefabricated roof structure also assists passive cooling by establishing an air barrier between the interior space and the zinc roof above.
The Earth Pavilion sets a precedent for an affordable, durable, earth constructed housing that is build-able by local craftspeople.
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 7:43:41 GMT -6
The Rice House will directly address the issues and problems related to the lack of enthusiasm among the Ghanaians in using mud house design. Presenting a housing option that is easy to construct, economical, and provides modern day insulation, acoustics, and protection from moisture, and water penetration. The House will have a modest design one could find anywhere, while respecting the traditions of the Ashanti people.
The Rice House will be built using all natural materials in all parts excluding the roof. The exterior walls will use an earthbag technique with two layers of lime plaster. The earthbags will be stuffed with rice husk rather than earth. Rice husk is the exterior shell that forms around the rice seed to protect it. When processed, the rice husk is usually treated as waste and either burned, or dumped. According to Dr. Paul A. Oliver in his paper on the subject of rice hull “Rice Hull House”, rice husk (or hull) serves as a great natural insulator. The husk can be fire resistant if pressed together, and doesn’t allow water and moisture to pass through. The foundation will consist of bigger rocks, and the first two or three layers of the earthbag house will consist of smaller gravel and smaller rocks. The interior will be comprised of partitions made up using the wattle and daub technique, where the frame will be made, and a mixture of clay, red dirt, and water will be applied to. The roofing will be galvanized steel.
Item Price (Labor included)
Polypropylene bags = $300
Lime/Plaster/Sand = $800
gravel/Rocks = $600
roof + Labor = $1,400
Windows/Doors = $1,200
MISC - (Barbed wires, frames, etc) = $400
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 7:50:25 GMT -6
ENTRY # 328_048_833
Description of the single building parts and chosen materials
Foundation: The foundation and the floor slab will be made of concrete until a hight of about two feet over the ground level to save the foundation and the walls against damages in case of flooding.
Floor slab: Made of concrete to have an long-lasting base for the house.
Walls: All the walls will be constructed of rammed clay. We decided to favourite this technic because of the high level of possible self-made-construction, to create personal identity and to save money. This way is not simple, but if you have a good qualified constructor for teaching the later inhabitants or unskilled workers can build this house under its leadership. There are two different sizes of wall thickness, the structural walls are 15 inch, also for climatic reasons; the non-bearing inside walls about 5 inch.
Ceiling: The ceiling is planned in timber beams filled with a inserted floor and over this filled with stoned clay. This works as protection against too much heat in the rooms under it. In the gap to the roof above protecting from rain, air can circulate.
Roof construction: The construction of the roof above is planned as an open timber bearing structur. The maximum span is about 14 feet and allows smaller sizes of the single beams.
Roof cladding:The roof is supposed to be made of corrosion protected corrugated iron sheets with an inner roof so water can be collected in the small courtyard for use.
COSTS FOR THE CLAYHOUSE
(without watertank, fences, gardenwalls, garden design) per unit single total costs
1 Foundation $1'148.40
Foundation 16.00 m3 $29.00 $464.00
Floor slab include terasse and finished surface 140.00 m2 $3.50 $490.00
stairways from concrete 6.00 steps $15.00 $90.00
labour costs (with own work) 10.00% $104.40
2 Walls $1'130.96
Outer walls, thickness approx. 15inch 124.20 m2 $4.50 $558.90
Inner walls, thickness approx. 10inch 59.40 m2 $3.75 $222.75
Inner walls, thickness approx. 5inch 43.20 m2 $2.85 $123.12
labour costs (with own work) 25.00% $226.19
3 Ceiling $767.42
Ceilings made of round wood and clay (inserted floor) 99.60 m2 $3.85 $383.46
plastering the inner ceiling 99.60 m2 $2.85 $283.86
labour costs (with own work) 15.00% $100.10
4 Supporting struktur of the roof (wodden beams / timber batten) $527.00
structur of rafters, roof batten, web bracing, beams and so on 170.00 m2 $2.00 $340.00
labour costs 55.00% $187.00
5 roof $1'327.70
corrugated iron sheet 170.00 m2 $7.10 $1'207.00
labour costs 10.00% $120.70
6 doors / windows $458.90
wodden doors 9 pc. $10.00 $90.00
windows on top of the doors incl. wire mesh 7 pc. $12.00 $84.00
windows beside of the doors incl. wire mesh 2 pc. $22.00 $44.00
normal windows incl. wire mesh 5 pc. $16.00 $80.00
small windows incl. wire mesh 10 pc. $5.50 $55.00
labour costs 30.00% $105.90
7 plumbing and electrical installation $396.50
bathroom with w.c., washing bassin and a bathtube 1 pc. $170.00 $170.00
electrical installation 1 pc. $135.00 $135.00
labour costs 30.00% $91.50
8 tiles in bathroom and kitchen $242.36
wall tiles in the kitchen 2.10 m2 $7.60 $15.96
wall tiles in the bathroom 12.00 m2 $7.60 $91.20
floor tiles in the bathroom 6.00 m2 $8.20 $49.20
labour costs 55.00% $86.00
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:00:21 GMT -6
The project aim to achieve three main pillars in which we believe that this architecture should go for:
-Economic sustainable approach without losing the value or creating and reinventing tradition vernacular architecture.
-Flexibility for any future use that the different culture might need
-Sustainable approach to prevent overheating, to prevent water may enter house and to allow a good natural ventilation.
2. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY
We started from the method of construction as a matter to determine the aesthetic of the proposal. Traditional Mud Brick was our starting point to which we moved away in order to investigated alternative shape solution that will allow more flexibility, as well as the opportunity to aggregate several elements of them and to give a new shape with the intention of creating a new sense of community. The inside configuration of the mud brick is the same as the traditional one which is clay soil mixed with sand, stabilized with cement or lime and these are molded and compacted in a manually operated press.
Fig. 1: Construction technology scheme
Together with the structural benefit of the new brick’s shape, we would like to point out the higher advantage of being able to create non-only straight wall but also working aside to any other shape constraint without changing system. The system allow for an insulation due to the air embedded within the C shape and as well as the known benefit of the mass effect due to the mud.
In detail we wish to highlight the following advantage:
-Opportunity to modulate, aggregate and to scale the element according to different requests
- less use of material for the wall while preserving the same resistance of the wall.
-Insulation thanks to air embedded in the brick’s voids and the mass effect of the mud.
-Higher nimbleness and lightness of the mud brick. (31 lb in our proposal against 75 lb of a standard brick)
-Opportunity to create mix structure adding bamboo (dry solution) or even steel reinforcement with concrete as a vertical connection among the elements.
3. PROJECT IDEA
The project started after having analyzed the traditional vernacular architecture and the local environmental context of Ashanti Region. A typical aspect that is always repeated in rural dwelling is the need to be easily modular and scalable which we both took as one of our main goals to achieve.
Fig. 2: example of vernacular architecture
The project is made of four square modules and thanks to their configuration create a small semi-private court yard towards the entrance side and an external area, protected and shaded, that people can use as an extension of the living space mainly during the rainy season.
Fig. 3: image of the project
The modularity of the proposal makes any future configuration more flexible and allows different scheme of layout in order to address different requirement.
The intention of the project is also to encourage the incremental development at any time as a consequence of the different economic situation of the families.
Fig. 4: incremental process scheme
Last but of primary importance in view to the general condition of the region, we decided to raised the level of the floor in order to avoid rising damp, to prevent internal flooding during the rainy season and also to allow always a floor to be ventilated from below.
4. CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
The external walls are made of mud bricks that assembled together allow to get at the same time structural skills as well as an higher level of insulation. With regards to the roof, we have provided a corrugated metal mesh, which is locally available in Ghana being aware that there might be the opportunity to use other corrugated mesh made of recycled material. Between the wall and the roof cover there’s a structure that separate the elements allowing a gap of air that will play an important role in control of the internal climate.
5. ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Fig. 5: bioclimatic section
Sustainable approach is a fundamental part of the project sicne we strongly believe that environmental comfort is one of the main key factor for a success in such a rgion and under such a complex climate conditions.
Evironmental strategy as a pillars of the projects are:
-greenery system as shading devices
-natural ventilation and air circulation around the building
- inner tude on the roof and under the floor.
6. COST ESTEEM
Please see below the resume of our cost estimate for the proposal.
Price in USD
Total = 6000
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:12:23 GMT -6
What I am proposing comprises of modular volumes designed around a central courtyard in order to creating the most comfortable and affordable living conditions possible. By paying close attention to Semper’s four elements of Architecture, it is possible to design a space which is not only comfortable and attractive, but a space that is simple and unique. The materials chosen in construction result in an elegant reinvention of the mud hut, contrasting the primal design of Semper’s hut, with modern twist of materials and style. As well as Semper’s four elements of Architecture, studying the climate and surrounding environment of the site also shaped the design. The orientation of the house is skewed to in accordance to the wind flow of the region to effectively utilize the natural wind and airflow. The narrow spaces allow for the wind to ventilate the structure providing efficient natural cooling.
Besides the roof and timber framing, the entire house is built from rammed earth, a material that is known for its thermal absorption and is traditionally used throughout Ghana. Along with the walls, the floor is also simply rammed earth, resulting in passive thermal cooling from both, throughout the day. Each door/window is constructed out of woven material within a timber frame. By using traditional weaving techniques, both the windows and doors will enable constant ventilation throughout the day and night, opening up the spaces while ensuring the spaces are secure. Joined by a catwalk the spaces are separated by a courtyard, which is framed by timber, in the future this space can be covered if required.
This courtyard related back to Semper’s hearth. It is a meeting place for people to congregate and socialize. The floor of the courtyard, just like all of the other spaces is rammed earth, allowing the space to be used in any possible way, from a workspace to an amphitheatre. The corrugated iron roof is then held 2ft above the walls allowing for natural ventilation, sandwiched between is a bug net and bamboo framework.
The roof is sloped appropriately to collect water on the north-eastern façade if the introduction of a water tank is possible, at the moment the budget is as follows;
· It is quoted that 12002 ft of corrugated iron sheeting would cost approx $1200. My design requires 10582 ft of corrugated but $1200 is budgeted non the less to account for inflation.
· $405 for timber framing of the roof.
· $147 for the shower/bathroom/sink
· $132 for 3 bug nets for each room
· $130 for doors/windows
· This leaves a remaining $3986 for the construction of the rammed earth structure and labor.
My design brings simplicity and thoughtfulness to the design to provide a comfortable living space for a single family at an affordable price. The thermal mass provided by the walls and floor ensure the spaces are cool and the natural ventilation enhanced by the orientation combat the mugginess of the humidity that exists in the region. The design reinvents the traditional mud hut using traditional techniques with a modern twist.
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:19:37 GMT -6
The House for Cloth Master’s Family
The house is located in Ntonso village in Ashanti region. It stands almost at the entrance to the village and is visible from the road. The house with its patterned facade invites you to come closer and wonder what’s in it. There lives a family of cloth master. They are always glad to see guests coming from other places of the planet. You can come to visit the master and learn the secrets of Kente cloth and Adinkra patterns making. You can look at the process, try for yourself, take a fabric with you as a gift and buy it for your friends. His wife will cook local food for lunch.
Facade of a house is semi-circular in its middle part, so sometimes it becomes a stage where the production process demonstrates as a spectacle. In the middle there is the entrance to master’s studio with his instruments and there are also hanging cloths for sale. Directly behind the studio there is the living room, where whole family gets together in the evenings. Bedrooms – to the left, kitchen and bathroom – to the right. Behind the house there is the back yard for household needs. Kitchen zone is separated by a corridor, so that the heat does not pass into the residential premises. The corridor provides easy access to the living room and backyard bypassing master’s studio. The size and number of bedrooms may vary depending on the number of family members. The partitions between the rooms can be moved.
Despite the fact that the house is large, it is inexpensive because it is made of bags filled with earth, which are very cheap. Most of the budget set aside for qualitative zinc roof and its frame made of wood and bamboo. Internal walls are made of bamboo, the floor is concrete. The cost estimation of the house includes the most essential materials for its construction, while others can be optional. For example, the system of collection and recycling of rainwater can be installed later; plastering and painting of all the walls of the house can also be attributed to the next stage. The fence is also not included in the cost and can be made of bamboo, wood or brick. The approximate cost of the house is $5937.
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:25:48 GMT -6
With rapidly growing African cities, the region now faces new challenges in the built environment; whether in keeping its identity and culture, reducing its energy consumption, supporting its local economy and labour or promoting resilient communities. The focus of this competition answers the above by accentuating mud as a pre-requisite for construction and our proposal supports this by going further by involving research in current issues in the Ashanti region.
With the challenge of keeping our budget as low as $6000, and also proposing a unit which caters for middle income families, we extend our thinking to not only the construction of one unit, but open the idea of replicating it as its cost exponentially reduces. Communities in Africa consider a dwelling is only for sleeping and resting and prefer to use outdoor spaces for interaction. We wanted to highlight this cultural lifestyle within the inside as well as the outside.
The design comprises of two modules 2.5mx5m & 4mx7.5m rectangular forms derived according to the minimum sizes required for the proposed functional spaces. It was then placed in such a way to achieve the required interconnection. This form could be developed into a larger scale as well retaining the character of interconnection not only within but also with outside environment. As we welcome the idea of expanding our design to influence the morphological structure of the city, this has to be two-fold, i.e, our design has to also respond to the cities need. As such, an initial research was conducted on the local economy and urban challenges of the Ashanti region. According to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, ash represents 40% of the waste composition in the region; A finding that strongly influenced our design decisions as we are proposing to use ash as a building material to generate visual patterns in the structure. For an example mud bricks of monochrome tones would create interesting patterns on the walls.
The total area of the house is 105 sqm and consists of two bedrooms, a living & dining space, a pantry/kitchen area , a toilet with shower and storage/laundry space and a courtyard. Our construction technique makes use of local resources and labour extensively. We use mud bricks and rammed earth as key structural materials. We have used minimum doors and windows. The main feature of the window is that is it a fixed window. These are partially recessed slits created in the mud brick walls to get enough light and ventilation. A cost effective mosquito net is used as an insect repellent.
The roof is made of thatch roofing material and is supported by timber members. Rammed earth foundation with rubble is used for sub- structure and earth and cement as floor. This would cut down the cost of using concrete as a major sub structure material. We have also introduced rammed earth as columns with strengtheners.
As extended families, or communities, are an intrinsic trait of the African culture, our proposal provides the flexibility of adapting housing units to different needs and wants by providing enough open space, all of which eliminates visual and psychological barrier between each other. Thus, this design not only offers an endless possibility of expansion from a unit to a city scale, but also provides an easy and cost effective way of building the next generation of African housing units.
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:36:23 GMT -6
The challenge was to build a house with MUD. EARTHSHIP it may be called. The given plot size was 60 X 60 feet, upon which 40 X 30 feet house must be constructed. The overall cost of the structure, excluding the cost of the land must not exceed $6000. The client is from a middle income family. It aimed at creating a single family and a semi urban house. Thus, it is time to prove mud architecture can be beautiful.
Characteristics of the material:
• Indigenous: Materials are found all over the planet. Shipping materials for long distances is not sustainable and uses excessive amount of energy. In order for the Earthship to be easily accessible to the common person and to maintain a low impact on the planetary energy situation, a "building block" ill over the globe would be required.
•Able to be fashioned with little or no energy: If a building material was found that was indigenous to many parts of the planet but it required massive amounts of energy to fashion into a usable form, then it would not be in sustainable and not considered. The major building materials for Earthships (require little or no manufactured energy to fashion into use. This keeps them easily available to common people and at the same time would allow the large scale production of Earthships to maintain a relatively low impact on the planet.
Thermal Mass: The materials that surround the spaces of an Earthship must be dense and massive in order to store the temperatures required to provide a habitable environment for humans and plants. The Earthship itself must be a 'battery' for storing temperature. Making buildings out of heavy dense mass is as important as making airplanes light. Obviously a heavy airplane takes more fuel to fly. Obviously a light house takes more fuel to heat and cool.
Durability: We have built out of wood for centuries. Wood is organic and biodegradable. It goes away. So we have developed various poisonous chemical products to paint on it and make it last. This, and the fact that wood is light and porous, this property makes it a very unsatisfactory as a building material. This is not to mention the fact that trees are our source of oxygen. For building housing that lasts without chemicals we should look around for materials that have durability as an inherent quality rather than trying to paint on durability. Wood is definitely a good materials for cabinet doors and ceilings where mass is not a factor and where it protected so it will not rot, but the basic massive structure of buildings should be a natural resource that is inherently massive and durable by its own nature.
Resilient: Earthquakes are an issue in many parts of the world. Any method of building relate to this potential threat. Since earthquakes involve a horizontal movement or shaking of the structure, this suggests a material with resilience or capacity to move this shaking. Brittle materials like concrete brake, crack and fracture. The ideal structural material for dealing with this kind of situation would have a 'rubbery' or resilient quality to it. This kind of material would allow movement without failure.
Low specific skill requirements: If the materials for easily obtainable housing are to be truly accessibly to the common person they must, by their very nature, be easy to learn how to assemble. The nature of the materials for building an Earthship must allow for assembling skills to be learned and mastered in a matter of hours, not year. These skills must be basic enough that specific talent is not required to learn them.
Low tech use/application: Some systems of building today are simple if one has the appropriate high-tech expensive energy dependent device or equipment. This, of course, limits the application of these methods to the professionals who have invested in the technology to enable them to use such methods. Because of the expense and energy required to get set up for these systems the common person is left totally dependent on those professionals for accessibility to these particular housing systems. Therefore the common person must go through the medium of money (bank loans, interest approvals, etc.) to gain access to a system that usually dictates performance and appearance. If high-tech systems and skills are between the common person and their ability to obtain a home, we are setting ourselves up to place the very nature of our housing in the hands of economics rather than in the hands of the people. This situation has resulted in human, energy-hog housing blocks and developments that make investors some quick money and leave the planet and the people with something that requires 3nt input-of money and energy to operate. Earthship technology is the technology of natural phenomenon like the physics of the sun, the earth and people themselves.
Solution: The concept of sustainability
Sustainable architecture is the architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by Efficiency and Moderation in the use of Materials, Energy and Development space. Sustainable Architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design built environment. The idea of Sustainability, or Ecological design is to ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations.
Hence, Sustainable Energy use
- HVAC efficiently
- Renewable energy generation
- Sustainable building materials
- Waste management
- The design:
First, it all started with the study of rural architecture of Africa. Then, it was about choosing the site. Here, a plot near the Conongo- Ejisu high road. This is a residential area. The Mud must be the staple material and the other materials must be locally available in Africa. The basic amenities of a house that makes it a home must fit inside the size given. For a family of 4 people, a living room, and bed room and kitchen is necessary. Social and private spaces are separated with a family space. All the walls are constructed using Adobe blocks. The Foundation here is done with rubble stone masonry. The verandah area can be used for running shops or plainly, a sit-out. Next to the kitchen slab is the door for the yard, which can be used for various purposes.
The elements of the house:
This double-wall technique uses bricks on edge with a cross brick between each and produces a 9-inch thick wall with an insulating air cavity in between. Surprisingly, this technique reduces the number of bricks required by 25%, thereby reducing material used, including mortar (1:8 mix), and overall cost. Rat-trap technique is equal to the strength of a solid 9-inch wall in either Flemish or English bond.
Finishing of such walls is not generally required and exposed brick themselves are appealing and form beautiful patterns. This saves the cost of plastering, painting, and maintenance. But the sizes of the bricks vary, so only one surface of the wall can be even. The other face (generally inner) can be smoothed by patch pointing. By avoiding unnecessary plastering, we can save up to 10% of the brickwork cost.
Lightweight, inexpensive materials such as low-grade Mangalore tiles, bricks, coconut shells, glass bottles, etc. are used as filler materials in filler slabs to replace the redundant concrete in tension zones. These materials are laid in the grids of steel reinforcement rods (6mm or 8mm dia.), and concreting is done over them. The concrete mix used is 1:2:4. The grid size depends upon the design, span, and the material used. For Mangalore tiles (size 23cm by 40cm), the grid size is 33cm by 50cm. The slab thickness is 10 centimeters. This technique saves energy-consuming concrete.
Frameless Doors and Windows
Door and window frames are not actually required. They are responsible for almost half the cost of timber used. Avoiding frames considerably reduces the cost of timber. Door planks are screwed together with strap iron hinges to form doors, and this can be carried by holdfast fittings carried into the wall. The simplest and most cost-effective door can be made of vertical planks held together with horizontal or diagonal battens.
Random rubble masonry is extensively used as foundation at places where stones are readily available. An 18” (45 cm) foundation base is adequate for most soils and single or double storey buildings. Depth and size may vary with the addition of number of floors. In case of weak soil, the trench can be widened (50-60cm) and the bottom can be laid with concrete (1:2:4) followed by a 30-35cm wall.
For the foundation, a trench 50 cm wide is dug and laid with rubble. It can be dry masonry or mud mortar. For higher masonry walls, cement mortar (1:10) can be used. (It is always wise to pile the excavated soil between the plinth walls to prevent cost of future filling).
Proper joints (dovetail) must be provided for stronger bonds as in the case of any other masonry works. Stones must be large in size and the gaps between stones must be filled with smaller stones for proper bonding and stability. Care must be taken to ensure bonding of stones along the length of the wall. Bamboo in lime concrete can be used for foundations, especially in the sandy areas along the sea coast. It is resistant to sea water. It remains intact whereas other foundations will crack with shifting sands. For places where stones and bricks are not available, foundation for mud walls can be of moist soil with layers of split bamboo reinforcement inserted.
Built in Furniture
These are either of brick or rubble masonry raised above floor level. Raised rubble masonry with finished surface can act as sitting or tables or even beds. Brick furniture is generally finished with a red or black oxide layer. To make it interesting, tiles are fixed to these oxides to form an integrated design pattern. Bay windows, outdoor sittings, loft beds, study tables, etc. are common examples of built-in furniture. Recesses and buttresses in walls are used as shelves, almirahs and cupboards. Common thoughts behind this built-in furniture are that, after constructing houses and buildings, clients are left with very little money to buy costly furniture, so these built-ins save money and also provide strength to the walls.
It is a perennial growing plant to between 0.5m to 2.5m depending on the variety. The flowers are hermaphrodite. This can be used for the treatment of industrial waste waters. It is effective for the removal of removal of high organic load, color and chlorinated organic compounds.
Foundation = $ 640
5 Blade louver frame (2) = $ 24
4 yards of wire mesh = $ 340
Steel truss =
8’ X 8’ plywood = $ 130
Cost of mud bricks = $ 750
W C seat = $ 65
Wash basin = $ 32
Other washroom fittings = $ 50
10 box of floor tiles = $ 70
Filler slab = $ 250
Roof = $ 1200
Cement = 105 $
Window measuring 4’ X 5’ = 125 $
Miscellaneous = $ 100
TOTAL = $ 3881
(Excluding the labor cost)
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:46:59 GMT -6
NATURAL UNION is a design for a middle-income family in the Ashanti Region in Ghana. The design plays on the traditional Asante courtyard building but with a modern open floor plan. Mud architecture is the traditional building material for much of Africa for good reason, and yet today it falls by the wayside as a building material. NATURAL UNION takes heed of the cultural history behind the material while developing a new form out of mud.
The walls are made from rammed earth and the roofing is of corrugated zinc sheets, supported by wooden rafters. The floor and foundation is a cement and laterite mixture, with the floor being polished for aesthetics.
Corrugated zinc sheets: $1,200
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 8:50:51 GMT -6
The challenging factor of this competition was to design a 1200 square foot structure for $6000 USD budget. Employing hired labor, both unskilled and skilled, using labor rates of $7-10/day respectively, the labor equates to approximately 30% of the project cost. In order to achieve the design goal, the majority of the labor would have to be self performed by the owner/occupant in order to reduce the labor burden. Material costs for the structural components and roofing materials total approximately 63% of the project cost. I designed the residence assuming the use of hired labor and the $6000 USD guideline as the dominant design factor. My costing afforded 960 square feet, and of which 168 square feet of that total is borrowed from the 960 square feet using the overlapping rooflines at the center breezeway.
I based my design on a structure that needs to be well ventilated by using the prevailing wind direction(s) as a guideline for both the kitchen and bathroom orientation within the structure, especially if the bathroom incorporates a VIP latrine versus a Pour Flush Latrine. The structure is multi directional based on street orientation and prevailing wind direction and allows multiple points of entry by keeping the latrine on the down side of the prevailing wind. The doors and windows are ventilating, operable and provide emergency egress for the bedrooms. The gated wall in the kitchen allows for additional ventilation as well as both indoor and or outdoor cooking options. I chose to incorporate rammed earth wall construction harvested from the site, using 1 foot incremental lifts and a longitudinal keyway locking each lift to the preceding lifts, and to the structural concrete components. I chose a low pitch wooden roof truss system for both the ease of fabrication and installation. I chose a stabilized earthen floor and concrete slabs at the entry points to include the laundry and bathroom areas, again based on overall cost savings.
SITE CLEARING AND LAYOUT
EXCAVATE AND BACKFILL
TRUSSES (FAB AND INSTALL)
STABILIZED MUD FLOOR
DOORS AND SCREENINGS
Post by Nka on Sept 4, 2014 22:56:51 GMT -6
ENTRY # 326261565
”Mudnopy house” 's aim is to increase the sustainability of the traditional mud Ghanaian buildings, and to make them attractive also for the growing middle-income families. The simple design takes its strength from the use of simple construction methods, easy to understand for the local labour, cheap to afford, and completely congruent with the local habits. The design process, takes local symbolism as inspiration for some shapes and for plan design. The word "Mudnopy" itself has in its roots the concept of 'mud' not only as a construction material, but especially as link with the origins and tradition and, then , the canopy, which, in biology, is the aboveground part of a group of plant community , an habitat zone. The bioclimatic aspect has lots of influence in the design, taking advantage of the sun position and the wind direction. Simple strategies has been used to provide good climatic control, and to balance between a skilled design and an optimized functional program. The house can host up to 6 members, and provides a huge inner courtyard flexible and completely shaded .
The entire load bearing wall system is made by rammed earth , except from some parts made by special mud bricks with a diamond hole pattern. Openings are made by a light and breathable bamboo structure, and some wood loopholes are located in the top part of the walls in order to provide a better air flow circulation. The roof is ventilated and made of iron sheet. Among the two buildings there is soft breathable tent creating and covering the inner courtyard. Some barriers made with steam bent bamboo are set to provide better shade on the two exposed sides of the buildings, and to provide more intimacy. The building cost is less than 6000 $ .
ROOFING……………………………… Corrugated iron sheet 1200 $
Framing Lumber 135 $
Heavy wood beam 335 $
WALLS…………………………………. load bearing walls (rammed earth) 1700 $
Blade windows 140 $
wood Bamboo doors 60 $
Bamboo shaders FREE
FOUNDATIONS……………………. Stone foundation 1000 $
TOTAL 5750 $
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 7:40:16 GMT -6
SHELTER FOR ANONYMOUS MASTERPIECES
While discussing this competition, someone showed me that book. It talks about wall paintings, in Africa, with wonderful womens, with incredible hands, whom, without any paintbrush and without any other purpose but ornament, decorate their houses with geometrical shapes, with natural colors, and create domestic anonymous masterpieces. The project proposed here, lets some degree of freedom to anonymous masterpieces. This proposal is not definite but is only an example of what could be done, with the tools that are proposed to you. Because of those thousand of miles between us, appropriation and flexibility are needed. Our proposal gives the tools, the guidelines, the environment to make a space where creation is free to happen.
There is a roof designed as a shelter, because earthworkers need to be protected from rain. There is a surrounding wall because, “man is a wolf to man” and serenity needs intimacy and security. There are networks ( water, electricity supplies) because, comfort is the starting point. Qualified workers will take in charge these points (roof, structure, foundation, slab, surrounding wall, networks) to provide you the best shelter in a quickest time. Now, it's up to you, to create your own living space without any structural issues.
Some of you would want 3 bedrooms, while others would prefer a working space and others a huge bathroom, but the guidelines are the same. No difficult skills needed here:
- a non structural cob wall, shaped with hands, decorated if wanted.
- Earth blocks modeled and compacted manually
- Door frames, all the same.
- A bug net cloud as a ceiling.
- An earth tiles ground, inside and outside.
Vernacular architecture of Ghana is rich of an admirable pictorial and spatial creativity. Of course, mud houses are cheaper, and ecologically better, but most of all, Mud houses represent individual creativity, originality and non-conformity. Creating more mud houses without perpetuating the architectural habits of self construction, and pictorial habits of decoration, is non-sense.
It's not because there is an urgent need of cheap houses, that removing the inhabitant freedom of action is right. This proposal is based on the inhabitant participation. It gives you the space and the time to construct your own home, different from your neighbour's. Under this shelter, inside your intimate enclosure, you are free to faconate with your hands, the limits of your interiority.
The non structural cob wall is constructed under the shelter by the inhabitants and his friends or neigbours. It creates a social connexion.This wall is considered as a separation between rooms. Stability of the house doesn't rests on it, so that inhabitants can really do whatever they want with it, there is no need to have a skill in earth construction at all.
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 7:50:21 GMT -6
Sited on the main route between Kumasi and Accra in the town of Konongo, the vault house splits apart the individual house functions to allow each aspect to be optimised environmentally to it’s individual requirements. These individual units are then brought back together to recreate the traditional courtyard arrangement. These elements are then covered with a large shading vault to tie the structures whilst providing shading and security. Compressed pavers are utilised for the external floor to create a raised plinth to protect the buildings from water whilst a concrete slab is used internally to avoid excess wear and parasite penetration. Additional external space is provided in the form of agricultural space, whilst an aqua privy toilet system is employed allowing the soak away pit to feed the agriculture with natural fertilisers.
The vault house aims to utilise earth construction in three different languages; brick, tile and cast. These three strategies allow the earth to be used to its full potential for a variety of building functions. The compressed bricks, stabilised with cement, are rotated to create varied perforations throughout the structure allowing efficient airflow to ventilate spaces, an additional internal perforated wall is utilised for extra security and waterproofing. Traditional firing techniques are used to create tiles, which are then utilised to construct Catalan vaults, allowing large spans without the need for excess materials such as wood or steel. These vaults also remove the need for corrugated metal sheeting removing the element of over heating and poor acoustics, whilst a double roof arrangement of these vaults creates a highly efficient ventilation system. Cast earth is used, combined with cement, to tie all these elements together in the form of ring beams for the brickwork and strong springing points for the arches.
The vault house therefore utilises earth construction through the ground in the form of tiered brick foundations through to the rotated brick structures and the sheltering vaults. Creating strong structural solutions that also perform environmentally to shade, ventilate and water harvest whilst also creating striking designs to encourage the use of earth to the surrounding population.
The rough costing for this project has been calculated using estimates gained from the NKA board and also personal project experience in earth construction in Uganda.
Compressed bricks: Rough brick estimate $3000
Fired Tiles: $ 2000
Insect Mesh: $44
Doors / Windows: $88
Labour: $960 – based on one skilled worker and two unskilled with a build time of two months.
Total: $6827 – rough estimate
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 7:57:52 GMT -6
THE «CUBES AND A LINK» MUD HOUSE
A House maid of closed cubic rooms and an open link
The house is maid of closed cubes, and a link :
Five closed square, constituted with mud walls built on concrete foundations define the location that house the uses that need intimacy, or that doesn't have to be open to visitors : the sleeping rooms, the kitchen, the storage space. The only hole that opens this cubes are their access door (simply closed with curtains). So that in the cubes the sunlight comes from the top, by the gap constituted with the detachment of the roof. Between this five solid and closed cubes, a link, a space open on the outside with lattices maid of hand pressed brick walls. A space that hosts the public reception space, the circulation space, and the water (shower and toilets) spaces.
The more the visitor enter the house, the more intimate the spaces are. The shifting of the cubes constitutes a chicane that doesn't allow views from the entrance and the street to the corridor that goes to sleeping rooms, the bathroom and the toilets. The five cubes hold the wooden truss that structure the roof. The roofing constituted with four parts with various heights, let the light and the air enter the space from the top of the house, particularizing the reception space with an higher roof, bringing extra sunlight to this space.
Flexibility of spaces
The durability of a house depends on its flexibility. A family change during years (children can birth, become grown-up and leave the house, an old parent can live with the family, and then decease). The five blocks are square to provide a maximum of flexibility to their occupation. Only one space has a very precise use defined:the kitchen (with its special equipements). A second block on the street is maid to be a storage space with a direct access to the street. If the family want to make a shop, it can be done in this spaces. The other spaces are more flexible and can be used as sleeping rooms (for 1,2,3 persons). Their different size ( two medium blocks 60 sqm – big block 95 sqm), and their various situations (near the reception space or at the back of the houses) allows different uses and occupations.
Sunlight orientation/ Climate adaptation
The house plan follow the sunlight orientation principles : Sleeping spaces located on the east side of the house (fresh spaces during the night), kitchen and living space on the west (fresh spaces in the morning). The detachment of the cubes and of the roof provide natural ventilation to spaces.
Here is a summary budget (the complete budget in appendix and on the project board)
· Structural works : 1815 $ (1035 $ for the concrete fundations, and 620 $ for laterite walls and concrete beam)
· Roof : 2730 $ (1470 $ for wooden beams and 1224$ for the galvanized zinc sheets)
· Hand pressed brick wall : 192$
· Furnitures : 63 $
· Plumbery : 700 $
· Electricity: 500$
Total budget : 6000 $
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 8:06:55 GMT -6
The main idea of how-to reinvent the African Mud House is to provide a spatial solution that includes currently cross-cutting known issues, and which goes beyond a self-referred objectness of the desired architecture, like (a) the access to ownership, (b) the prevention of informal extensions in the so-called “negative space” and (c) the interaction between the environment and the mud house itself.
In the Community House, a joint venture of up to nine possible residents can be formed to gain access to ownership a lot easier by simply sharing the budget. In addition, the implementation of a gradient-like space and the integration of possible small shops attached to each apartment unit eliminate a clear bisection of the environment and the architecture. As a result, boundaries between private-public are blurred up and spatial relationships softened up.
A new housing experience comes into being with the theme “Living on Levels”. Numerous levels with multiple potential applications invite the residents to explore them and generate more artificial usable surfaces: small house, but big space! Upper levels offer areas of freedom, but still guarantee adequate privacy thanks to roller blinds. The apparent “floating” roof (bracing by panel effect) allows a constant natural ventilation of all rooms (also: air columns) and provides precious shade.
All structural elements can be manufactured by the owners themselves since the materials are very common and local available. No metal elements are applied.
The do-it-yourself-mentality of the Community House will bring all spectators a new awareness of the African Mud House to mind and will create unique identities.
FOUNDATION AND PLINTH
solid bricks (500mm in the rammed soil and 200mm over it) ④⑤⑥
WALL ①④⑤ AND PILLAR ②⑤⑥
structural earth block wall in diagonal bracing on the foundation 365mm thick and further 3000mm high (max. 4000mm) over the foundation plinth
base coat: 10-15mm sieved earth (0-4mm) ④⑦
finishing coat: 5-8mm fine sieved earth (0-2mm), removed edges ④
noble coat: 2-3mm fine sieved earth (0-1,2mm) ④⑨⑩
final-layer: fine earth screed t=40mm ④⑦⑨⑩
mid-layer: rammed earth t=80mm ④⑦⑧
base-layer: rammed earth t=80mm ④⑦
SEALED BRICK ROOF (from-top-to-bottom)
render-set fine earth screed t=40+7mm
rammed earth blocks t=52mm ③④⑤⑥
earth render daubing (or jute mat/reinforced paper membrane)
structural wood boarding t=24mm
visible rush mat t=3mm
ceiling joist 50 x 50mm @ 515mm
rafter 210mm @ 3000mm
EARTH MIX PROPERTIES (UNDER ON SITE CONDITIONS)
dry bulk density ≥ 1.400 kg/m³
wall and blocks strength ≥ 2,5 N/mm²
pavement strength ≥ 5 N/mm²
① block format 01 = 365 x 240 x 115mm, mortar = 5-10mm
② block format 02 = 240 x 115 x 71mm, mortar = 12,3mm
③ block format 03 = 365 x 240 x 52mm
④ made of earth of mixed grains with 10 kg/m³ palm fibre
⑤ formed with a manually operated press
⑥ mortar of same mixture
⑦ rammed soil with hand rammer or if available with machine rammer
⑧ if available apply reinforcement
⑨ mixed with slaked lime and slow-backed brick-dust/-chippings
⑩ hardening and sealing treatment with banana tree fibre or oil spray
BUDGET IN USD
(1) Foundation & Plinth = 1.500$
(2) Walling = 1.250$
(3) Roofing = 1.750$
(4) Fittings = 500$
(5) Miscellaneous = 1.000$
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 8:15:15 GMT -6
“The Good Life” is by Ghana’s middle class conceived as a ‘villa’
Originally a western dream this has been exported to most of the world with troublesome consequences. In tropical developing countries this often resolves in poorly build concrete houses un-adapted to the local climate. The inhabitants have not been able to afford large enough windows, air-condition and proper furniture, resulting in horrible climatic and health conditions. Still the dream of the western villa persists. It is a dream of literally showing the world that “I made it” on the front façade. What people do not dream, of but end up living in, is round houses and compound houses. These are not conceived as modern.
‘Axis’ acknowledges the wish of a prestigious façade and at the same time reinterprets the traditional courtyard house into a suburban context with separating barriers and fences around the plot. By distinguishing between more and less costly wall materials it allows to build a beautiful front and a living room with high ceilings within a limited budget. Subsequently the cheaper facades on the back can be changed into better and more durable solutions.
Also by creating an ‘L’-shaped cast for the rammed earth a thinner wall can be obtained, reducing costs and thermal capacity. Good thermal comfort leaves to more probability for the inhabitant to put up a mosquito net at night, and hence reduce vector borne infections. To obtain a good inner climate each room in the house is slim, it allows for cross ventilation, it has large eaves, the thermal mass on the southern wall is reduced, and in the bedrooms a metal ceiling with a ventilated space above isolates from radiating heat.
‘Axis’ appreciates the Ghanaian social norm by allowing various levels of privacy. Also it enables both a formal front yard as well as a backyard of a more practical and private character. It embodies the transition between tradition and future. Fully modulated it is a versatile system capable of adapting to any site, functional need and economical limitation. On its front façade it celebrates mud as an innovative material that through its low cost allows for a better, healthier and more beautiful manifestation of a new African building culture!
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 8:22:16 GMT -6
The potter has many techniques and processes for producing her vessel. She is sensitive to its different potentials at various stages from wet to leather-hard to bone dry. Building up the form, cutting and reassembling elements, patterning and burnishing the surface all have their proper moment. How can that level of attention to timing and technique be translated to mud construction? After all, mud is just clay with the right balance of elements. We know the climatic and economic benefits of mud construction. Why not then ask what else it is really good at? This proposal takes up that question and looks specifically at the formal characteristics, geometric tendencies and material techniques of mud construction as a method of re-envisioning the mud house typology.
As a basic massing, the house is composed of two offset and interlocking cylinders - one side being designated for public living space and the other for private sleeping quarters and bathing. A thin rectilinear “breezeway” is cut into the center of the plan to bridge the two halves. The breezeway is an open-air space that functions as a circulation corridor both for the family to move from room to room and for air to flow throughout the house. Louvered openings are placed strategically along the breezeway and around the exterior envelope to allow air to be constantly pulled through each room of the house. A large double gable roof stretches over the two offset volumes, providing deep overhangs in the front and back. These covered porch spaces are designed as programmatically flexible zones for entertaining, vending, washing, cooking, playing, resting etc…
Central to the massing concept is an interest in bringing together two rather disparate vernacular elements: the circular plan and the pitched roof. In this way the process of re-envisioning the mud house resists the modernist tradition of and contemporary tendency towards abstraction, and instead attempts to recast vernacular features in an unexpected way. How simple and yet how very strange to see a circular form trimmed and capped by a pitched roof. To return to the literal analogy of the potter and her skills at cutting and recombining, can we imagine a house composed in much the same way?
A typical mud brick construction is suggested for use. It is a simple system requiring no formwork. A wall of two bricks deep is laid up row by row with mud grout between the brick, then a mud-plaster finish layer is applied to protect the sun-baked bricks from weather damage. As a completed wall system, the exterior wall thickness is eighteen inches (twice the depth of most other methods of construction). There is heftiness inherent in the system as well as a strong tactile quality, largely due to the process of hand applying the finish rendering. While one response could be to tame the material (thinning it out and smoothing it up), the clay house takes an opposite tack. It takes advantage of thickness, fattening the walls with program. It embraces the hand-rendered surface, texturing for maximal effect. And so we arrive at the carefully cut and reassembled, planed and grafted, textured and incised dwelling proposal offered here.
The question of site for this project is flexible. One potential would be the township of Pankrono, a village in the Ashanti region famous for the production of pottery in order to harness the skills and techniques of local craftswomen.
BUDGET (Material Cost USD)
small agg 100
concrete footing 2000
mud brick 400
concrete header 250
mud brick 100
ceiling battons 60
wood beams 375
wood beams 450
wood framing 420
zinc roofing 1200
Wood columns 135
Windows& Doors 240
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 8:33:05 GMT -6
ENTRY # 316331497
“I NA NYE YIRI”: YOU WILL HAVE A HOUSE
Houses are always born in a specific culture, of which they are a natural emanation. In Ghana, since the most ancient of times, the greatest blessing the ancestor's spirits could bestow upon someone has been “I na nye yiri” (you will have a house). The need and the desire of having a house unites all people in the world. Architecture is the tool that satisfies to this need through ideas/answers that changes through time and place, as the questions themselves evolve.
I NA NYE YIRI is an attempt to answer the ever growing interest in the Ghanaian middle class for houses that do not abandon the African tradition of so-called “poor” materials, but rather highlight their esthetic and ecological qualities. The idea is to have a house prototype which can be adapted to different needs, and also become a piece of a wider village concept.
This is an interesting architectonic challenge, one that raises some questions:
How can a habitat be modernized and yet avoid the simplistic urbanization of a rural village?
How can the spontaneous process of village formation be kept relevant, while introducing a logic and scientific planning?
What shape should this architecture have?
Analyzing and studying the African architecture, and the social and urban structure in the continent, we have come to a new approach.
Traditional Western architecture is based on the A.B.C. triangle (Architect, Builder, Consumer). In many African countries there is no such thing, as one person or social group embodies all three elements. Building and decorating a house is a shared task in the village community. This analysis guided us in choosing material and construction methods which are rooted in African culture, and already known by most communities, thus easily manageable. The project uses mostly three materials: mud, bamboo and wood. The mud rests on a base in concrete, while bamboo is the infill wall. To protect these materials from atmospheric agents we imagine a wooden cantilever roof.
Designing a unifamiliar house for one family in a place such as the Ashanti region with its particular characteristics, we have imagined on of the elements forming the modern village developing through autochtonous knowledge. The aggregation of the living unit may follow a pattern defined by the 60 by 60 feet unit, whilst still having freedom of spatial arrangement through sensible slips and different alignments. The associative process is, therefore, not rigid, thus allowing for a living experience of spontaneity and practicality deriving from empirical knowledge. The idea of volume derives from studying the typical traditional African village, a mosaic of elements of different shapes, spontaneously juxtaposed.
The living unit reproduces on a smaller scale the village composition, the mud is made of 4 blocks, with the private life happening inside (bedrooms, toilet, study room), and the family life buzzing on the outside (kitchen, living room). The dembere, the central space between the 4 volumes, is the center of domestic life, on which the living room and kitchen open, it is the place where a family gathers. In the center there is a tree representing the spirit of the project, around which different dynamics can develop.
The family space is defined in two ways, which create different dynamics:
A mud wall on two sides strongly separates the family private space from the outside, characterizing it with an introspective attitude.
A bamboo fence, on the other two sides, makes the separation soft, becoming a filter, toward the village.
Mud: 65 m3
Concrete base: 10 m2
Platform: 90 m2
Bamboo: 100 m2
TOTAL BUDGET 5.500 $
Post by Nka on Sept 5, 2014 8:43:33 GMT -6
Capitalizing on Ghana’s embedded perception of the family structure, our social solidarity prototype revolutionizes the essence of the extended family system and proposes a neighborhood that is socially and economically interdependent. A family of six is our target group. Our model balances between privacy and the highest degrees of hospitality by dedicating the front southern side to neighborhood unity and the back northern side to the more private and functional spaces (bedrooms, utility porch, kitchen, water tank). The solidarity side includes an open access workshop/store, the heart of economic interaction. Next to it is a solidarity water fountain for everyone’s use, the entrance porch, the outdoor living extension and a guest bedroom. The living room is the hub of both private and social functions. Adorning our prototype’s front is the social solidarity wall, a tangible evidence of the family’s open doors. Every guest is expected to get a token to hang on the wall. The most colorful solidarity walls reveal the most hospitable families.
Comprehending the financial capabilities of the Ghanaian middle class, our house allows for step-by-step expansion. Thus, foundations, stem wall, CEB columns and roof are built first. This is what we call the “roof-first” approach. It aims at protecting the earth walls added at a later stage, but mainly allows for a flexible space allocation based on need and family size. The module is on a 0.3m x 0.3m base grid for ease of construction. We chose two sites in the Ejisu and the Ashanti townships, revealing the adaptability of our proposal. Even though the house is connected to a public water grid, a sand-filtered water tank covers the family needs for both kitchen/bathroom water supply, the solidarity fountain, and irrigation. The design aspires self-sufficiency by covering basic needs such as a crop-based vegetated backyard. The more a family has, the more it is willing to share.
With a total built up area of 104m2, the design maximizes natural ventilation through the building by achieving an interplay between controlled habitable outdoor areas and comfortable indoor spaces. Also, all spaces are open to the south/southwest prevailing wind direction. A double-roof reduces the heat gain. A large light-colored reflective corrugated sheet metal roof shades the house and unites both private and social space types.
Our solidarity mud hut aims to fight the bad connotation associated with earth construction:
Physical protection of the earth blocks via large overhangs and stem walls.
Chemical stabilization via a mixture between 5% pozzolanic cement and 5% hydrated lime stabilization, professed to be a better combination to combat water-susceptibility, durability and compressive strength issues.
Mechanical stabilization via applying pressure to earth to allow its elements to bond better, allow for a more engineered, standardized solution of earth construction that is acknowledged by international building codes.
Regular maintenance of the mud hut.
After extensive research these four main criteria happen to all fall under the umbrella of compressed earth blocks. Rammed earth was an equally favorable alternative, however, the quality control of a brick before it becomes a building component is higher. Also, MEP integration is easier with masonry construction in comparison to monolithic structures. The project duration is around 2 months, with an avg. productivity rate of 200 blocks/day. The project is dependent on 5 men operating the earth construction materials and 5 operating the rest with an emphasis on community help. The projected budget for materials is $3,855, the infrastructure costs are $759 and the labor costs are $1,360. The total is $5,974.
Engineered CEBs provide an opportunity to maintain the Ghanaian social solidarity culture and values. We build together.
Entance Porch: 3.35 m2
Living Extention/Courtyard: 7.35 m2
Living Room: 17.00 m2
Outdoor Workshop: 9.00 m2
Bathroom: 3.10 m2
Kitchen: 8.60 m2
Kitchen Storage: 1.60 m2
Water Collector Room: 2.25 m2
Outdoor Utility Porch: 15.15 m2
Master Bedroom: 14.80 m2
Master Bathroom: 3.10 m2
Children's Bedroom: 18.90 m2
Guest Bedroom: 10.40 m2
Circulation: 45.00 m2
Wall Thickness Area: 26.55 m2
TOTAL PROJECT OUTDOOR AREA: 82.10 m2
TOTAL PROJECT BUILT UP AREA: 104.05 m2
DETAILED BUDGET AND BILL OF QUANTITIES
Compressed Earth Blocks: $ 897
Earth Fill: $ 0
Soil Mortar: $ 0
Cement: $ 164
Lime: $ 74
Ready Mix Concrete: $ 855
Steel at 10mm Diameter: $ 153.2
Stone (Quarried): $ 62
Stone (Hand Crushed): $ 0
Waterproofing: $ 189
Floor Ceramic Tiles : $ 12
Wall Ceramic Tiles: $ 65
Marble Thresholds: $ 85
Corrugated Sheet Metal: $ 594
Wood (from Site): $ 0
Wood (Purchased): $ 529
Gravel: $ 0
Mosquito Nets: $ 9
Cloth: $ 52
Glass: $ 55
Reed: $ 0
Water Tank: $ 60
Outdoor Landscaping: $ 0
Trees: $ 0
TOTAL MATERIAL COST: $ 3,855
Site Preparation and Road Access: $ 135.2
Electricity Installation: $ 166.4
Plumbing: $ 135
Sewerage: $ 62.4
Furniture/Bathroom Goods: $ 260
TOTAL INFRASTRUCTURE COST: $ 759
Skilled Labor (Master Builders): $ 400
Unskilled Labor: $ 960
Volunteers: $ 0
TOTAL LABOR COST: $ 1360
TOTAL PROJECT COST: $ 5,974
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 7:39:34 GMT -6
The Earthbag Roundhouse recognises the value of the cultural heritage of the African mud hut, and aims to stay true to this vernacular architecture, whilst also building on such tradition, modernising and adapting the design for 21st Century living. The Earthbag Roundhouse draws on two dwelling styles preferred by the people of the Ashanti Region - the courtyard and the roundhouse - and gives the 21st Century modern middle income Ghanaian family a refined housing alternative, through a simple plan layout incorporating four key living functions under one form. The project is budgeted at $4800 for all construction materials, with additional costs being incurred for labour. These costs are dependent on local labour available in the area. The project budget is minimal, as earthbag construction requires few additional materials to complete the build, thus bringing the finished building in under the set budget of $6000.
Sleep. Bathe. Eat. Relax
Identifying what are perhaps the most vital activities undertaken in a dwelling determined how the main rooms of the house were to be ordered, with free-flowing courtyard space connecting each. The courtyard allows for identification of the public and more private spaces within the house through the use of low-level earthbag walls, as well as enabling the family to open up the indoor spaces, bringing the outside in. The vision for the finish of the Earthbag Roundhouse is that it would be finished with an earth render, both on the external/internal walls and on the floor. This helps to make the building more sustainable, as materials used consist of just earth, water and a little cement depending on the desired finish.
Earthbag construction has been chosen for a number of reasons, primarily due to ease of construction, relative low cost, sustainability and structural soundness. A big draw of earthbags in that construction can be carried out by anybody. This could encourage the local community to get involved with the building of earthbag dwellings – or other buildings – in the future. The use of earthbags allows for flexibility in living conditions for families of all sizes. As both the design of the Earthbag Roundhouse and the technique of earthbag construction are so adaptable, should the Earthbag Roundhouse be welcomed and adopted by people in the Ashanti Region, constructing in this manner could be adapted by families of all sizes and from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Earthbag construction requires no concrete foundation. This is of particular note, as it not only reduces the cost of construction, but also makes reduces the green footprint of the building making earthbag construction a more sustainable option for the future. Instead, stabilised earthbags are sufficient in ensuring the Earthbag Roundhouse is constructed on a suitable and enduring base.
Maintaining the aesthetic of existing dwellings – thus making only discrete interventions to the neighbourhood landscape could have wider connotations for the community at large. The Earthbag Roundhouse could be the catalyst for a network of new, affordable housing throughout the Ashanti Region, catering for the needs of the modern family. Such change could be necessary to improve local architecture, helping to improve not only the quality of people’s living conditions, but also improve a townscape. A new construction technique and a more inspiring design concept could be just the necessary tool to eradicate the stigma associated with mud construction, whilst encouraging a sense of pride in the new architecture style through empowering the inhabitants and encouraging involvement in the design and construction of their new dwelling.
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 7:45:32 GMT -6
Mud homes have traditionally been constructed in Ghana, but have fallen out of favour due to a perception that the method is cheap, old, and difficult to maintain. This is not necessarily true, as Ghana has rich laterite soil which is well-suited to earth construction. A new and innovative design in a vibrant urban community can promote earth construction as modest, affordable, and appropriate to the locale and to create a shift in construction from imported materials like concrete back to natural materials. The proposed design in Obuasi should provide a catalyst for new, owner-built homes in the region made out of earth and other affordable local materials.
Obuasi is a cosmopolitan city in the Ashanti region of Ghana, featuring a rich history of international involvement through its gold mining operations. There has recently been a shift from deep shaft mining to surface mining, which has led to an abundance of available laterite, perfect for building. Residents of Obuasi build their own homes in the metropolitan centre close to amenities and services, leading to a dense development of homes of many shapes, sizes, and styles. A new modern home in the neighbourhood would fit well with the diverse building vernacular. The proposed resident for this design is a mine worker and his brother – a local merchant – along with their immediate families. They will be able to readily acquire laterite from the mines and building materials from the town, and assemble the structure.
The proposed design draws from the traditional courtyard house, featuring a central open area protected from the street by a wood screen walls with doors. The living spaces (bedrooms, living room) are located to the east to take advantage of the prevailing northeast winds, and also to avoid the hot afternoon and evening sun. The service rooms (kitchen, latrine, storage) are located to the west, separate from the living spaces to avoid sound, odours, and heat from cooking and the hot sun.
The exterior walls feature ventilation slits around the perimeter to permit air flow from all sides while also providing privacy and security.
Natural ventilation is very important in the proposed design, with the angled roof panels capturing wind and diverting it into the home, and slits in the exterior walls capturing air from all sides. Interior partitions are permeable, so that air can pass through; and do not extend to the roof so that air can pass over. The wood floor is raised in the living area so that air can circulate under the floor, from the exterior ventilation slits, between the joists, and through gaps in the flooring. The kitchen is separate from the living space, so that heat from cooking can vent out through the courtyard rather than into the living spaces. These measures ensure that the home does not get overheated, and fresh air is constantly provided to the inhabitants.
To promote earth construction the proposed design features exterior rammed earth walls. Constructed with two widths of forms (5’-1” wide and 6’-6” wide), two sections of wall can continuously be under construction while other elements such as roof trusses and partitions can be built at the same time, increasing construction efficiency. Wood truss roofs with large overhangs protect the rammed earth walls from rain and direct sun. All framing is to be Dahoma wood as it is fast-growing, abundant, inexpensive, and durable. The trusses lift the roof surface above the rammed earth walls to capture natural ventilation on all sides. The roof sections are covered with corrugated metal panels, a cheap and effective material which also reflects a lot of incoming solar heat. Water is directed from the roofs through gutters and downspouts to grade to avoid infiltration into the interior.
BUDGET (ITEM PRICE)
Foundation $ 480.42
Rammed Earth Walls $ 658.44
Framing + Partitions $ 637.10
Trusses + Roofing $ 2,319.17
Fixtures + Fittings $ 445.00
Hardware and Miscellaneous $ 524.00
Labour $ 930.00
TOTAL $ 5,994.13
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 7:54:39 GMT -6
ENTRY # 327522751
Architecture’s strongest power is beauty. “One’s Habitat” will be a showcase for the imposingness of the material earth, formulating a unique composition; creating a place to feel home, to feel safe and a place to enjoy. Offering a modern and expressive scenery at the waterfront of lake Bosumtwi, one of the most beautiful spots within the Ashanti Region, the use of rammed earth goes without saying in this prime location. Sensible contrasting the adjoining village Abrodwum while using the same material yet processed in a sophisticated way, the design gives incentives to local architecture by refining building methods and spatial distribution.
Key characteristic of “One’s Habitat” is the large rammed earth wall as backbone of the house. It separates the public path from the private space however giving way for a brief glimpse to passers-by coming along the curve. Passers-by get a sneak peak into the entry zone, formed by the overhang of the roof and the rammed earth wall, equipped with a welcoming bench next to the entrance door. Entering the inside means enter the living zone. Having the earth wall in the back, a marvellous view is offered towards the lake. The kitchen as centre of communal live is located right in the middle giving space to seating area next to the glazed facade. The large rammed earth wall in the back has a counterpart right in front of the glass façade, which is separating the sleeping area from the living room. A niche located within the wall for relaxing and dreaming characterizes the formed transition zone. The bathroom is accessed from the sleeping room and offers a unique atmosphere. The room spans between the two visible rammed earth walls and is crowned with a dome. Light, which is coming from the dome is reflected by the mosaics of the two sidewalls, creating an introverted and romantic ambience. Small details like themed niches or the way of lightning strengthening the characteristic of each formulated space.
In this way “One’s Habitat” offers an architectural alternative for the emerging middle-class using local material without giving up living standards. Using the climatic features of earth in combination with a greened roof a convenient microclimate comes into being. Clear spatial composition and strong atmosphere goes hand in hand with the use of local material, thus reacting on local conditions in terms of resources, climate and location.
The earth works allow a high use of unlearned labour force and creating added value in social terms for the nearby village. While the earth on site was evaluated as excellent building material the costs for transportation can be saved. Expenses are distributed on the key features of the design as glazing towards the lake and the roof construction. By this means costs can be even reduced compared to conventional building methods.
A rammed earth house doesn’t have to be contradictory to modernity, prosperity or raised living standards. The showcase house “One’s Habitat” therefore constitutes a built manifest, made mainly out of local earth and choosing one of the finest locations in the Ashanti Region to demonstrate its timeless elegance. Hereby the design will contribute to raise the acceptance of the underestimated local material in a long-term perspective.
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 8:31:00 GMT -6
ENTRY # 326873449
BOA ME HOUSEThe Ashanti Region of Ghana lies at the heart of the West African tropical rain forest. The only major city is the capital, Kumasi. Ghana is a country with a rich culture and traditions and the Ashantis have a unique way of branding Ghanaian culture. Akan architecture uses a variety of symbols to convey messages about the family of the significance of the building itself. From there we take the name of our project, the ‘Boa Me House’. Boa Me Na Me Mmoa Wo, shaped by triangles, which means: ‘Help me and let me help you’. This concept keeps our idea of cooperation, joining our knowledges, sharing our background acquired both in our cultures, and unifying them doing great things together.
Why Juaben…? We want to show that a mud house can perfectly fit in a middle population township, like Juaben, which is about 20 km of the capital Kumasi. It’s a well connected place, that can reach lots of people and it’s easier to get the natural material than in the big cities. We think it’s a posible point where change can begin, for being half way between city and countryside context.
Why earth construction…? It’s the main material used in the traditional architecture of the region, always in dialogue with the environment. Times have changed an also the ways of doing, we want things fast and industrial materials give us a wrong idea about the relation quality - efficiency. In this way mud construction stays related to poor constructions, we see several examples along the country in bad conditions. Showing the attractive of this material we want to recover the know-how in this kind of construction
and the value of their own resources.
Why adobe bricks…? A piece of mud, a basic unite, simple shape, can be manipulated by one single hand and get to build huge things…incredible, isn’t it? For this main reasons and the freedom that it allows in the design we’ve chosen this technic. It’s the one fitting better to our shapes with folding walls for a climate strategy and openings in the upper walls for natural lightening and ventilation.
Why courtyard typology…? Housing and architectural styles reinforce social organization and emphasize family unit. The compound
in Akan societies consists of a central courtyard which serves as the center of household activities. The kitchen area usually extends into the courtyard. It allows a different degree of relation between the private and public space.
Following this idea of the familiar sharing space, we also open the option to extend it more over, placing an adobe oven in the garden for bigger scale of community and a central gardening to share with the neighborhood day a day.
Why this shape…? Studying the environmental conditions of the area we got to the starting point of our project. There are two seasons—the rainy season (April to November) , with the monsoon coming from the SW and the dry season (December to March), with hot winds coming from the NE. We fold the walls of the house creating a shape that depending on it’s position takes the air from the outside or rejects the coming rain. Trying to take profit of those conditions, in the dry season we speed up the velocity of the air coming from outside being refreshed in the inside of the house by a watering and planting system, and in the rainy season avoiding the rain and collecting it to reuse.
Besides this, our shape tries to be rigid from the outside to grow the feeling of security and once inside, the walls begin to curve giving fluidity to the space. We wanted to create four different spaces: two more privates, rooms and bath, and other two with public character, kitchen and courtyard, all of them always interconnected in between them.
How to reinvent their main resources…?
·Using the traditional technic of adobe bricks with an improved foundation and contemporary beauty.
· Folding traditional brick walls for a better climate control.
·Show the wonderful traditional textiles of the region as a powerful element in facades, giving a unique character.
·Provide the main courtyard with a vegetables garden : refreshing the air and feeding the family.
·Water collector for the rainy season, serving the bath and gardens.
· Dry toilet creating compost to fertilize the vegetables. !
· New beauty to the communal kitchen, covered and allowing the smoke evacuation. !
·Plastering the walls with karité butter mixed with local clay to improve the water resistance.
·The adobe bricks it’s a simple technic that allows all the family to participate and reduce the budget for housing.
ITEM price per item amount TOTAL PRICE
bricks for walls & extras US$ 0,2 3500 pcs US$700,00
bricks for the Jali US$ 0,2 550 pcs US$110,00
foundation material - 9m3 US$300,00
ring beam ——— 2,1 m3 US$150,00
corrugated zinc sheets (roofing)-116 m2 US$600,00
beams US$ 7,0 43 m US$301,00
rafters US$ 3,5 130m US$455,00
doors US$ 15 2 US$ 30
windows US$ 10 3 US$ 30
plumbing (water tank & gardening) —— 15m US$ 20
dry toilet —— —— US$ 120
washing basin US$ 32 1 US$ 32
other washroom fittings US$ 50 1 US$ 50
water tank US$ 60 1 US$ 60
textiles for windows & doors US$ 10 6,5 US$ 65
formworks US$ 2,8 30 US$ 84
bathroom walls/partition —— 15m2 recycled formworks
ceiling for rooms US$ 3 22 US$ 66
ceiling for roof US$ 3 116 US$ 348
plastering ——- —— US$ 100
stove & exausting US$ 100 1 US$ 100
specialized labour US$ 10 30 x 2pers US$ 600
unskilled labour free —— family members
extras ——- —— US$ 150
allowance 10 % US$ 432,10
TOTAL US$ 4903,10
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 8:47:26 GMT -6
The idea was to create a building with the most possible flexibility. Depending on requirements, the house should be used, without having to make major structural changes.
concept (urban design)
The design is preferably for closed buildings that have no external windows. Simply, the only access is via an opening in the facade.
This allows for a flexible position of the houses. They can be built as a single unit or as a conglomerate of several units together.
The rectangle building is divided into three zones, in which the the central zone is slightly wider compared to the the edge zones, and features an interior courtyard. The middle zone is for the community. Here the living and cooking takes place. Residents enter the building through the communal area, which also plots the bedrooms. These are located in the two edge zones that connect to the communal area. The edge zones are divided into six parcels. One of these parcels is for the sanitary sector. The other parcels are bedrooms. By adding or removing the seperating wall, it will create up to five or a minimum of two bedrooms. These are big enough for a bed and a closet.
Lighting and ventilation
Since the layout of the building is inwards oriented it eliminates the need for external window. The natural lighting and ventilation is via the courtyard and the roof. A sufficient air circulation will be provided through the wooden roof structure, based on the operating principle of an Arab Mashrabiya.
The main building material is reddish brown laterites. It´s used to create the walls. In addition, there are wooden beams for the roof construction. The roofs are covered with zinc sheets .The slope of the roof makes it possible to collect accumulating rain water and use it, as an example, to flush the toilet. Another elements are the built-in doors. All doors are built of the same type, therefore it does not require any special designs. The door elements are sliding doors, which should also be seen as a creative element.
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 9:05:58 GMT -6
ENTRY # 327759023
THE LINK 'Life between Sky and Earth'
This project is extremely simple and proves, in its own way, that Mud Architecture can be useful, healthy, cheap, beautiful, contemporary, and thus a sustainable material for our society. I’m convinced, from my own mud architecture experience and few journeys in West-Africa, that changes are possible, and that it is not just a matter of money. On the contrary, a tremendous architectural progress is a matter of introspective vision on our culture and society, a matter of motivation, a matter of working together. 2014 Mud House Design Competition is an opportunity to influence African and western thoughts on the issues of mud architecture.
This brief text is structured following three axes: An Iconic House/ A Climatic House/ A Feasible House.
I/ Promoting an ‘Iconic House’ is essential if we wish to make people understand immediately the essence of a new mud house architecture. In a humble way, this project symbolically links the Earth with the Sky by reinterpreting elements of Ghanaian culture: the central traditionally-painted wall interlocks the basement made of compressed earth with the luminous velum. The contrast between the strength of the mud and the lightness of the textile is immediately striking. Thus, this ceiling dances in affinity with the sun. By nightfall, the sun’s reflections will disappear from the velum, and will ablaze again with the first rays of daybreak. This house offers a sensual experience, and refers to a mythological, glorious, proud and generous Africa.
II/ Nowadays, too many constructions in Africa are being produced without common sense, and against climatic characteristics. This project aims at respecting the comfort of users, and visibly reducing energy and money consumption. This ‘Climatic House’ is based on three strategies: 1/ Using rammed earth to make large peripheral wall is the best way to create a good thermal inertia for a house. Inertia is essential for a natural cooling system and comfort. The ceiling of the ground floor is made of corrugated steel and a thick concrete slab which create a good thermal inertia as well. 2/ The house possesses an inner courtyard of 25 sq. meters, where little trees and shrubs are planted. They provide humidity and umbrage. 3/ The velum protects the mud house from water degradation. It is also an umbrella which protects the upper terrace, the inner courtyard, and a wide area around the house, from the sun. The velum also works like an everyday ‘dew trap’, and provides free and clear water for laundry, bathroom and kitchen use. Water is stocked on a tank of 100L in the central painted wall. We can easily find waterproof fabric or plastic for a good price in Ghana.
III/ The main issue of this project was to make this house affordable and feasible for middle-class families, while respecting and magnifying the Ghanaian culture. This ‘Feasible House’ is about 120 sq. meters on one ground floor and an upper large terrace. The project has two bedrooms, one bathroom, one entrance and a living room which is wide-open onto the inner courtyard. The central painted wall is essential because it protects the intimacy of the family from the street, basic element of Sub-Saharan African culture. The central painting wall is important because it refers to Ghanaian mud architecture, but this time with a contemporary architectural vision. It is the support of the family: it provides water, the cooker, the tools, the book shelf, and the stairs.
Structurally, the central wall supports and stiffens a part of the steel beams of the velum and the concrete slab. The steel construction consists of two hyper-static rigid gantry supports cross-braced laterally and transversely. The structure also relies on the peripheral wall made of earth. This ‘double’ structure (mud wall + steel beams) is technically entirely possible in Ghana.
Thanks to the simplicity of the project, it is possible to spare a lot of material, time and money. For example: we just need 50 000m3 of rammed earth (only workforce and equipment cost), 30 corrugated metal panels of 5m, 12 steel beams of 7 m, 10 steel lines of 7m, 50 bags of cement, 30sq. m. of earth partition bricks, one cooking stove of 5m, four windows, four doors, one portal, bathroom amenities, one water tank of 100L, 140sq. m. of waterproof fabric or plastic, and 50L of ochre-colored paint. We also have to think how to spare consumption of electricity and water networks. All these elements fit in the budgetary envelope of 6 000 USD.
As mentioned previously, creating a new architectural dynamism in Ghana is not a question of money: With only 6 000 USD, motivation and a cohesive group, we can participate in sustainably changing Ghana. It could be a chance to modify the negative depiction of earth architecture; it could be a chance to associate earth architecture with elegance, culture and smartness; it could be a chance to build a house which is at the same time ‘Iconic’, ‘Climatic’ and ‘Feasible’; it could be a chance to live between the sky and the earth.
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 9:12:45 GMT -6
Bamboo and Mud HouseConcept
Nowadays , main buildings materials are changing mud to concrete in Ghana. We see the reason why the mud buildings are at a low is because of that manufacturability, everyone can build it even the person who doesn't have skills.Then we thought what should we do is to show like a coordinates for builders who dont have skills to be able to make mud buildings beautifully and accurately. We thought the mud buildings need restrictions by coordinates to handle the characteristic of mud which transform freely.The building which was drawn by coordinates is like people who can only draw graffiti learn to draw a beautiful geometric pattern. By designing it as a prototype, We are intended to be widely diffused the mud buildings.
Bamboo and mud
As the main material, in addition to mud we are going to use a bamboo which can gather plenty in Ghana. First, put up the skeleton of the cubic grid of 60×60×60cm by bamboo. And this grid will be the coordinates and ruler to constitute the space. And make the blocks of soil 60cm-square and let them fit into that skeleton.Both materials are natural materials, so there is no same shape. But even if the bamboo is awkward shape, the mud can change in shape and fit them. From things like this we can take advantage of such features of mud.In addition, precisely because bamboo is awkward shape, this thing can make roughness of construction less noticeable.
Floor planning is a common form in Ghana. Floor is sandwiching the courtyard. The courtyard is enclosed in agricultural net for pest measures and only wind can pass through.
Estimate cost of materials
Mud No charge
Bamboo No charge
Agricultural net 617$
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 9:23:15 GMT -6
Adinkra are visual symbols, originally created by the Ashanti people of Ghana and the Gyaman of Cote d’Ivoire in West Africa. They are metaphorical sayings to convey traditional wisdom, social aspects of life and their views of the natural world. In Ghana, adinkra symbols are everywhere: on stools, buildings, house walls, pottery, and clothes. Adinkra symbols have been adapted to contemporary designs ranging from logo design to floor plan of buildings. Adinkra is basically a cotton cloth produced in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire which has traditional Akan symbols stamped upon it. The adinkra symbols represent popular proverbs and maxims, record historical events, express particular attitudes or behaviour related to depicted figures, or concepts uniquely related to abstract shapes. It is one of several traditional cloths produced in the region.
The designing of the mud house had many problems and conditions taken into consideration by also keeping the climatic conditions in mind.
Courtyard – The courtyard is kept open for good ventilation and so the hot humid air can pass out.
Living Room - The living room is lowered and pushed under so that it maintains cool during the hot climate.
Bedroom – The mud house consists of 2 bedrooms, first being the master bedroom and second being a common bedroom, which has stacks of bedding at the corner of one room, the main purpose of stacking and designing it to the corner of the room is so that there is space for the children to play and enjoy and when its time to sleep the mattresses can be pulled out. Also the room is quite spacious hence grandparents can also sleep along with the children.
Kitchen – The kitchen is divided in two sections where one section has a fireplace, it has a wall dividing it from the kitchen. The reason behind this was to keep the smell of the fire away from the kitchen which does not disturb any activities that takes place in the kitchen.
Storage – There is a space which is allocated for space where one can store food items and clothes which can be needed in a time of crisis.
Post by Nka on Sept 6, 2014 9:32:13 GMT -6
My design approach is to use established art and architecture typologies as inspiration to design a house that is easily accepted by the community to reestablish the viability of earth as an affordable and reliable construction material. Through research, I discovered the tradition of Kente cloth and its significance in Asante culture. Kente cloths are the colorful and dynamic textiles created by skilled weavers who use woven patterns to tell and pass on stories. To create the cloth, weavers juxtapose strips of cloth composed of alternating warp-face patterns (simple striped patterns) and weft-faced patterns (geometric designs).
For the proposed design, the juxtaposition of patterns is reinterpreted into organization of program space and corresponding wall construction. The spaces of the home are arranged in two strips with a shared long axis. Spaces are categorized into private and shared and then arranged in an alternating pattern along the long axis. The two strips are then offset so that private and shared spaces alternate along both the short and long axis. The nature of each space is expressed in the elevation of the house by the composition of the exterior walls. Private spaces, such as bedrooms and bathrooms, are constructed of rammed earth. The nature of rammed earth construction inherently creates walls with rhythmic horizontal banding similar to the warp-face patterns of Kente. The solid walls are ideal for visual and noise privacy of private spaces. The exterior walls of shared spaces are constructed of pressed masonry units and arranged in geometric patterns similar to the weft faced patterns. The masonry walls allow light and air to enter the house. The infusion of light and the open nature of the space create a unified shared space that intertwines with the private rooms.
In addition to the development of cultural connections, the design seeks to utilize earth not only in the walls, but also in the roof and floor assembly. The roof assembly is composed of metal cladding, clearstory trusses, with earth reel insulation and a plaster finish. The earth reel insulates the interior space from the heat and noise of rain. The floor is composed of stabilized rammed earth over sand and aggregate. The flooring assembly is common in the region and provides an affordable and durable surface. The use of earth in multiple elements of the building helps reduce cost and demonstrate the viability of earth as a construction material.
The design also incorporates passive design features into the building elements in order to provide a comfortable space and relieve reliance on utilities during outages. Clearstory louvers, eaves, and light shelves provide shade from the harshest sun angles at the same time allowing ambient light into the house. The elevated roof and wood slat cladding allow warm air to rise and ventilate from the building. Furthermore, the sloped roof enables water to be captured and stored near the bathroom and kitchen positioned at opposite corners of the house.
The proposed plan is for 1260 sf and provides three bedrooms, a bathroom, den, living room, guest room/storage room and kitchen. The living room is at the rear of the house and opens onto a courtyard space and back yard. Occupants could choose to alter the patterns of the brick walls to their liking or in order to reduce cost. Skilled labor for the masonry walls is the largest cost item for the proposal and a simplification of the screen walls will lower cost.
An estimated cost is as follows:
Foundation and Floor: $650.00